Tobacco smoking: mental and physical dependence and methods of getting rid of it
Tobacco smoking( nicotinism, nicotinomania) - is the most common type of substance abuse among all age groups.The addiction to tobacco products adversely affects the physical and mental health of adults, adolescents and children, both male and female.
Note : there is not a single organ or system in the body that does not suffer from toxic effects of tobacco smoke toxins.
Continuous smoking leads to the development of symptoms of addiction, mental and physical dependence, accompanied by abstinence.
Most of all, men prefer smoking, according to WHO, among men, about a third is a regular consumer of tobacco products.Table of contents: Historical data Why people smoke Nicotine dependence Addiction to health The main diseases caused by smoking Tobacco smoking treatment
Tobacco leaves were imported to Europe in the 15th century from South America.Gradually the habit of using tobacco in the form of a chewing mixture, a powdered powder for inhalation, and of course - smoking spread throughout the globe.Some adepts of nicotine smoke assured that tobacco is a medicinal plant that helps with many diseases.
At the beginning of the 19th century, tobacco scientists isolated nicotine and described its properties.It was found that tobacco in any form leads to negative health consequences.
But, despite this, smoking rapidly gained more and more of its fans.
The boom of smoking occurred in the second half of the 20th century.Nicotine addiction was instilled with the help of developing cinematography and television, magazines.Billions of people sitting in front of screens of cinemas and TVs watched daily how favorite heroes of art paintings smoke.Supermen and beauties smoked, politicians and bandits, heroes for any consumer taste.Tobacco factories, manufacturers blossomed, cigarette brands multiplied, which can not be said about the health of those who began to depend on this terrible poison. ...
Elite products and cigarettes for the middle class, very simple tobacco and cigarettes, cigars, cigarillos, each of these types of dope found its buyer.
And although the voices of opponents of tobacco products were periodically heard and continue to be heard, threatening warnings on beautiful packets of cigarettes were printed-people continue to smoke.
In Russia, the number of tobacco users is 35% of the total population.
Why people smoke
It all begins with the desire to imitate your idols, and also from the passion of knowing the unknown( what is it, since everyone likes it).The first cigarette, the first puff on the sensations are extremely unpleasant.There is dizziness, headache, nausea, weakness.These are the symptoms of nicotine poisoning.But with repeated attempts, they gradually disappear, and they are replaced by pleasant sensations of pleasure, clarity of thoughts, euphoria.
The fact that nicotine, getting into the blood, is involved in enzymatic reactions, causing increased formation of catecholamines with the release of adrenaline and noradrenaline and stimulating the brain pleasure centers.Gradually, the smoker has a dependence that requires new doses of nicotine.According to the US Institute for Drug Addiction, NIDA, the ability of nicotine to cause dependence is greater than that for heroin and opiates.
Formation of nicotine dependence
Dependence is a complex biopsychosocial problem.The main sign of this disorder is behavior characterized by compulsive consumption of psychoactive substance, in this case - nicotine.The diagnosis of dependence is established in accordance with the criteria of the Manual on Diagnostics and Statistics of Mental Disorders DSM-V( effective from 2013), developed by the American Psychiatric Association( American Psychiatric Association).In this Guide, 11 criteria are given: when confirming 2 or more criteria that were noted by the patient for 12 months of , the diagnosis is "Dependence".With the confirmation of 2-3 criteria, an easy dependence is diagnosed, 4-5 - moderate, 6 and more - a severe degree of dependence.
Note : Although the presence of tolerance( the need for increasing nicotine doses) and abstinence( withdrawal syndrome) are taken into account during the diagnosis of nicotine dependence, these factors alone are not grounds for diagnosing nicotine dependence.Dependence( addiction) refers to the category of mental and behavioral disorders( classification according to ICD-10), which may be accompanied by tolerance and withdrawal syndrome, and may occur in isolation from them.
During the formation of nicotine dependence, several stages can be distinguished:
- Episodic use of nicotine.The number of smoked cigarettes does not exceed 5 pieces in 10 days.The fact of smoking is provoked, as a rule, by external microsocial factors.
- Systematic use of nicotine.The number of cigarettes smoked increases to 2 to 6 per day, the person begins to form not pronounced preferences for specific brands of cigarettes.
- The first stage of dependence. is formed as a psychic dependence of on nicotine, but there is no physical dependence.The duration of this stage is from 3 to 5 years.It seems to the smoker that smoking improves his working capacity and well-being.The withdrawal syndrome is absent, the tolerance to nicotine is increased.The second stage of the dependence. .Psychic dependence reaches its apogee, the physical dependence begins to form .The duration of the second stage is on average 5 to 20 years.Smoking is an obsession, a person wakes up at night to smoke a cigarette, smokes on an empty stomach, switches to stronger cigarettes.The first signs of physical dependence - a morning cough, a feeling of discomfort.Bronchitis can become more frequent, cardiac rhythm disturbances, insomnia, pain in the heart area, arterial pressure is unstable.
- The third stage of dependence on nicotine.There are both mental and physical dependence.The third stage is the stage of complications.At this time, tolerance for nicotine decreases, with smoking several cigarettes in a row a person feels physical discomfort.Serious health problems begin, and the development of precancerous conditions and cancer is possible.
At the stage of formation of a mental dependence some consumers of tobacco are alarmed, after all, smoking is not so harmless, if it is so hard without it.A part of smokers throws, another part tries to quit, but can not, and the third - "safely" continues to smoke.As already mentioned above, mental dependence is formed on average for 3-5 years of constant smoking.Doses are usually about 5-7 cigarettes a day, sometimes 15.
"Well, many smoke, and nothing, they live, out of that( that's) grandfather at all to 90 lived and smoked all the time."So soothes a nicotine man.At the same time, he tries not to think about those who have not lived to 50 thanks to a fatal passion, and there are many such.Much more than "grandfathers who lived with tobacco up to 90".
Having smoked years 5-15-20, the dependent suddenly began to notice that without cigarettes is not just uncomfortable, but bad.Smoked already a pack, or even more a day.The need for smoking raises a person at night from bed.The occasional "respite"( with illness, or the inability to smoke for other reasons) causes a shiver in the hands, sweating, dizziness, headache, weakness, cough( paradox) and other individual unpleasant complaints.This is how is formed as a physical dependency of .
Nicotine is "embedded" in the normal biochemical reactions of the human body, the incoming dose is already an essential chemical substance for the normal life of many systems.
By depriving themselves of smoking, patients at the stage of physical dependence begin to suffer physically and mentally.The first dose after abstinence with surprising speed returns normal state of health.
It would seem, that's why I like it, if I want to.But no, just during this period and "crawl out" all the side effects of nicotinomania.
The effect of smoking on health
No one doubts the harmful effect of nicotine on the physical condition of a smoking person and others.The fight against smoking has been going on for a long time and not without certain successes.
The WHO Framework Convention on Harm Reduction and Tobacco Control mentions that, according to scientific evidence, smoke from tobacco products leads to illness, disability and death.
Please note: manufacturers of tobacco products, thanks to modern technologies, have developed products containing substances that, besides nicotine, form and maintain human dependence.
Among the main causes of death of the world's population, the second place is smoking, which causes a number of pathologies that end in a lethal outcome.
Major diseases caused by smoking
The main target of tobacco smoke is respiratory tract .Regularly passing through the nasopharynx, trachea, bronchi and light smoke has a damaging effect on the mucous membranes of these organs, reduces their protective properties and over time can cause atrophy and degeneration of the cells of these organs into tumor cells.
Emerging inflammatory processes lead to severe chronic processes: tonsillitis, pharyngitis, tracheitis, bronchitis and pneumonia.Often formed emphysema of the lungs, obstructive processes.
The study of foreign and our scientists clearly shows that smoking was the cause of death of men from lung cancer in 90% of the European Consensus Statement on Lung Cancer: Risk Factors and Prevention.Not too far behind and female indicators - 80%.Although more recently in women, these figures were much lower.
Malignant tumors of the lungs in smokers are formed more than 10 times more often than in non-smokers.
Smoking several times increases the risk of developing tuberculosis.
Cardiac muscle and coronary vessels is the second primary nicotine target.
Early myocardial infarctions and strokes are consequences of the addiction to tobacco smoke.The smoker is 2-4 times more prone to premature development of these terrible diseases.Arterial vessels respond to the penetration of tobacco smoke by the development of atherosclerotic processes and saccular protrusion of the walls - aneurysms, which eventually lead to tragic end.
Swallowing of saliva soaked in nicotine has a damaging effect on the esophagus and stomach, leading to severe diseases of these organs, among which the most dangerous are tumor formations.
Influences tobacco smoke on the functions of the male reproductive system, causing erectile dysfunction, impotence and infertility.
In women, one of the most unpleasant complications is osteoporosis - a violation of bone tissue structures, leading to pathological fractures.Nicotine, when smoking, getting from the lungs to the blood, leads to the transfer of poisons into all organs of the human body.Being a strong carcinogen, nicotine can cause malignant neoplasms almost anywhere in the body.
Changing the appearance of the smoker - dry and yellowish skin, premature wrinkle network, constant coughing, gray appearance of the face, yellow teeth and damaged vocal cords.A constant unpleasant smell emanates from the smoker.
Please note: In addition to nicotine,is also affected by radioactive substances in smoke.
Despite all attempts of manufacturing companies in every way to reduce the concentration of harmful substances, tobacco remains a potent poison.
Some scientists wrote articles that showed "positive" properties of tobacco, but, despite all their efforts, they could not gloss over the overall negative picture caused by smoking.
Treatment of Tobacco Smoking
Many people, suffering from addiction and complications, try to give up the addiction and ask "How to get rid of nicotine addiction?".Some of them manage to cope without help, others need treatment from a specialist-expert in narcology.
The most successful method remains the independent relinquishment of dependence.At any stage, you can quit smoking.People with sufficiently developed will and desire for special problems do not arise.
"withdrawal symptoms" after the last smoked cigarette go away within 3-7-14 days.After them, physical dependence disappears, the psychic can last very long, but it all depends on the installation of the former smoker for a healthy lifestyle.The usual daily routine must radically change.It is necessary to add sports loads, walks, diets.It is important not to return to addiction any more, as the "breakdown" will bring back both mental and physical dependencies.
Among the treatment measures are applied:
- substitution therapy( temporary injection of nicotine drugs into the body to alleviate the withdrawal symptoms) - patches, lozenges, lozenges, nicotine chewing gums, etc.;
- sedative therapy( sedatives and tranquilizers).Medicines help to eliminate sleep disorders and nervous state, characteristic in the first days after failure;
- psycho-action - hypnosis, encoding according to the method of Dovzhenko, rational psychotherapy, auto-training methods;
- acupuncture, physiotherapy.
A large number of authoring techniques have been developed, which it is better to choose to quit smoking independently, relying on advice, personal experience and most importantly - your own desire.
Quitting smoking is the choice of health and life!
You can see what raw materials are used in the production of modern cigarettes by watching this video review:
Lotin Alexander, medical reviewer