Atopic dermatitis in children: causes, manifestations and principles of treatment
Atopic dermatitis is an inflammatory lesion of the skin of a chronic type, caused by external factors.Has an allergic breed and is most often manifested in children aged 2 months and older, but by the age of 4 the condition has stabilized.
About pay attention to : atopic dermatitis is not considered a disease, can not occur in a child younger than 2 months, but can accompany a person all his life.Table of contents: Causes of atopic dermatitis atopic dermatitis Classification in children Symptoms of atopic dermatitis in children What can a child help
Causes of atopic dermatitis
This condition is a consequence of immaturity of the digestive system of the child and a "signal"That in the body there are some violations.
If we consider the process of manifestations of atopic dermatitis without the use of specific knowledge, the essence of the pathological process is as follows:
- some substances that enter the baby's body are not digested by it - for example, certain foods, dust, pollen particles of flowers andOther;
- in the body, these substances are converted into antigens - substances, defined by the body as foreign;
- after the formation of the antigen in the body, antibodies to them begin to form actively - the struggle begins and the elimination of foreign substances begins.
It is the complex of antigens and antibodies that provokes atopic dermatitis.But there is another option for the development of the situation: during pregnancy, a woman consumed too much of any particular product - for example, chocolate.At the child still at an intrauterine development antibodies to it were formed and at the first use of the kid of chocolate( or cocoa) at once there is a classical atopic dermatitis.
In both described schemes of the development of the condition in question, the first manifestation is a rash - it is variable and can be shallow / localized, fuzzy / fused, pink and actively hyperemic.
For more information on the causes of atopic dermatitis, see the video review:
The rash is defined by the doctor as the result of contact of the allergen with the body, which can enter the tissues / organs / cells in three ways:
- Direct exposure to the skin.This type of penetration of the allergen into the body is called a contact allergy and is characterized by the appearance of a rash after, for example, using a new detergent powder - the child is put on clothes after washing and within a few hours the skin becomes covered with a rash.
- Penetration through the oral cavity.This most common way of getting the allergen into the baby's body is called food allergy.
- Ingestion of allergens through the respiratory tract.Respiratory allergies can be triggered by house dust, minute particles of animal hair, pollen of plants.
Classification of atopic dermatitis in children
In medicine, it is common to distinguish three main types of inflammatory lesion in question:
- Infant. The pathological condition begins at the age of 2 months and lasts up to 2 years inclusive.Some pediatricians and parents of infantile atopic dermatitis are called diathesis, but this is not quite correct definition - diathesis is classified as a disease, dermatitis is simply considered an inadequate response of the body.The infantile appearance of atopic dermatitis with a shallow pink rash with localization on the folds of the arms and legs may appear on the buttocks and face.
About pay attention to : , there are only minor rashes on the baby's body first, but over time( if no measures have been taken to get rid of atopic dermatitis, the rash starts to get wet and crusts form.
- Children's .The inflammatory lesion of the skin begins at the age of 2 to 12 years.For the childish kind of the condition in question, rashes on the neck, face, hands and the folds of the lower / upper extremities are characteristic.
About pay attention : children's atopic dermatitis is manifested by skin thickening, the appearance of cracks and erosion in the rash.This kind of the condition under consideration has a fairly noticeable soreness, therefore it requires medical care.
- Teenager. This species is notable for variability - atopic dermatitis can brightly manifest, and then subside for a long time.Rashes appear in the decollete, on the elbows, face.
More information about the manifestation of dermatitis in children will be told by the pediatrician:
Symptoms of atopic dermatitis in children
Atopic dermatitis proceeds wavyly - it is clearly manifested, it practically disappears.Most often, the first signs of the condition in question appear in infancy during the introduction of complementary foods or when the mother uses "aggressive" products( if breastfeeding).
About pay attention to : in some cases, atopic dermatitis can become aggravated when changing the climate, and may enter into a long-term remission after a trip to the sea - all individually.
The most characteristic signs of the considered inflammatory lesion of the skin:
- rash with localization in different parts of the body, which can disappear when coming out into the cold, but brightly manifest at elevated air temperature;
- diaper rash in the inguinal folds and on the folds of the lower / upper limbs;
- general dryness of the skin;
- crusts on the scalp.
Children with atopic dermatitis suffer from frequent conjunctivitis, rhinitis( rhinitis), common acute respiratory infections.In addition, the fact of uneven weight gain at normal nutrition can be noted.
About pay attention to : atopic dermatitis in children can completely disappear by 2 years of age, but there are individuals who develop into more serious allergic diseases - bronchial asthma, allergic rhinitis.
Despite the fact that atopic dermatitis in children is not considered a disease, one can not ignore its manifestations and hope that "with age everything will pass" - the situation will only get worse, and the banal rash on the skin will add unbearable itch.Parents can take several measures that can prevent the aggravation of atopic dermatitis.
Getting rid of the allergen
If you can quickly identify the allergen and limit its effect on the baby's body, then the manifestations of atopic dermatitis immediately disappear. Of course, this is an ideal development option, but you can not always immediately determine what specifically caused the rash on the baby's skin, so parents can take the following measures:
- Choose the right clothes for your child.It should be made of natural materials, it is better to reject synthetic materials altogether, especially in the hot season.Pay attention to the manufacturers of children's clothing - cheap imported suits and sliders should alert parents: when they are made, poor-quality material and paint can be used.
- Thoroughly choose detergents.Powder is best to not wash the baby's clothes - give preference to either soap or special means.
About pay attention to : adult clothing that a child can come into contact with must also be washed with hypoallergenic agents.It is very important to choose natural soaps and shampoos for the baby - no chemical additives, dyes and fragrances in them should not be.
- Bathe the child only in boiled and standing water - tap water is artificially saturated with chlorine and other chemical antiseptic substances.
- Be sure to monitor the cleanliness of toys and in general the premises in which the baby is located - dust is considered a powerful allergen, so wet cleaning at least once a day should become a "holy" duty of parents.It is necessary to remove carpets from the floor and walls, get rid of excess textiles( blankets, sofa covers, tablecloths, etc.), if there is a fungus( mold) on the walls, it is strictly forbidden to stay with a child with atopic dermatitis in such a room.
On how to properly care for the skin of a child suffering from atopic dermatitis, tells the pediatrician:
Atopic dermatitis in children is strictly forbidden to use the mother( if she feeds the baby breast) and introduce the following foods into the baby's diet:
- Citrus - lemons, oranges, including in the form of juices and additives in tea;
- cocoa in any form - drink, chocolate;
- candies - jujube, caramel, iris;
- milk and its derivatives;
- eggs in any form;
- nuts( hazelnuts and peanuts);
- dill, parsley, onion feathers;
- vegetables, berries and fruits of red / orange color.
These restrictions must be valid until an allergen is detected.Doctors recommend monitoring the amount of food a child uses - it is not necessary to overeat.Even when feeding a baby with a mixture, it is better to cook it in small portions.According to statistics, thin children who do not suffer from being overweight are much less likely to experience any allergic manifestations on themselves.
To treat atopic dermatitis, folk remedies should be treated with extreme caution - any medicinal plant can cause an aggravation of the allergic reaction. It is better to use proven and hypoallergenic agents:
- Grate raw potatoes on a non-metal grater, apply to the most inflamed areas of the skin at the time of exacerbation of the condition in question.It is better to do this while the child sleeps.
- Bathing baby can be in the baths with a decoction of thyme and chamomile pharmacy - they will remove the inflammation and reduce the intensity of itching.
- Take 1 tablespoon of borage and blueberry grass, brew according to the principle of tea in a teapot( 300 ml of boiling water) for 2 hours.Drink the tea you need during the day, eat - 30 minutes before eating.About pay attention to : this broth can be given to children from 2 years of age, but for the mother who feeds the baby, it can also be shown.
Atopic dermatitis in children is classified as a chronic condition - it is impossible to get rid of its manifestations forever.But adhering to the recommended diet, strictly observing the rules of selection of clothes, detergents and regularly conducting wet cleaning, you can significantly reduce the manifestations of the inflammatory process, and in some cases, and enter atopic dermatitis in a persistent / prolonged remission.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category.