Neurinoma of the auditory nerve
A benign tumor that develops from Schwann cells of the auditory nerve, as well as the 8th pair of cranial nerves, is a neurinoma of the auditory nerve. This disease is infrequent - for 100,000 people 1 case. The neurinoma of the nerve, namely the auditory one, accounts for up to 12% of all tumor formations of the brain. In most cases, this disease occurs in people aged 30 to 40 years.
What is the neurinoma of the auditory nerve?
The auditory nerve itself consists of 3 parts - cochlear, which is responsible for the transmission of sound to the brain and two vestibular parts: the upper and lower parts. Basically, neurinoma is formed on the vestibular part of the nerve. There were no reasons for tumor formation. However, many experts believe that the disease neyrofibromatoz 2( genetic pathology) sign is considered a neurinoma of the nerve. In this disease, often neurinoma is bilateral.
The only detected risk factor for neurinoma is the genetically caused neurofibromatosis 2. This disease is autosomal dominant. This means that the genetic mutation is not present in the sex chromosome and can only be transmitted from one of the parents. When there is such a gene for both parents, the probability of the disease of children is 50%.
Pathogenesis of the neurinoma of the auditory nerve
There are 3 stages of the neurinoma of the auditory nerve in medicine. At the 1 st stage, the size of the tumor is small, 2 -2.5 cm. Symptoms of hearing loss, of the vestibular apparatus are observed. As a rule, a person does not hear well in one ear, vestibular function is lost on the same side, a mild paresis of the facial nerve can be observed.
At the second stage of the disease, the tumor already has the size of a walnut. At this stage, the symptoms are more pronounced. Because of the pressure on the brain stem, multiple spontaneous nystagmus appears, coordination and balance of movements are disturbed.
At the 3rd stage, the tumor has larger dimensions. There is a rough nystagmus( when you look in the side there is a discontinuous horizontal movement).Due to compression of the optic nerves, visual impairment may occur. Hydrocephalus causes a disturbance of the psyche.
What are the symptoms of neurinoma of the auditory nerve
The manifestation of the neurinoma of this nerve is a decrease in hearing. This is due to the squeezing of the cochlear nerve tumor. In addition, the tumor can be squeezed by the brain stem. Rarely, but such a squeezing with a large tumor carries a life threat, since in this part of the brain there are vasomotor and respiratory centers.
Manifestations of neurinoma of the auditory nerve grow with the growth of the tumor, although not always its size has a corresponding manifestation of growth. Manifestations of symptoms also depend on the location of the tumor, on what it affects the organs. With small sizes of neurinomas, no symptoms can appear at all.
The earliest manifestation of neurinoma is the symptoms of the defeat of the auditory nerve. The manifestation of symptoms is observed in 95% of cases. The first symptoms of the disease are: ringing in the ears, which is noted in 60% of patients, also a decrease in hearing. In 60% of patients, there are signs of a lesion of the vestibular nerve. They show up periodically appearing instability, especially when the head or body turns sharply, there is a strong dizziness. Gradually the course of the disease leads to complete loss of auditory nerve functions. The patient is deaf, on the affected side there is a violation of the vestibular function. In addition, the growth of the tumor can also have an effect on the facial nerve, since it is anatomically close to the auditory nerve.
It can be concluded that the main symptoms of the neurinoma of the auditory nerve are: a decrease in hearing( gradual) on the side of the tumor, sometimes a hearing disorder can occur suddenly;dizziness;Noise in the ear on the affected side. Also numbness of a part of the face, a feeling of tingling associated with an effect on the facial nerve;Violation of stability.
In our time, there are 3 options for the treatment of neurinoma of the auditory nerve. This is surgical treatment, radiosurgical treatment and monitoring of tumor development. The question of treatment in each case is decided individually.