Ischemic colitis: symptoms and treatment
Ischemic colitis is an inflammatory process that affects the large intestine.Pathology develops on the background of a disorder of the processes of blood supply to the rectum.The persons of the senior age category with diagnosed atherosclerosis are most affected by ischemic colitis.Table of contents: Classification What is the origin of?Symptoms of ischemic colitis of the intestine What is the danger?Methods of diagnosis Treatment of ischemic colitis
Specialists identify such types of ischemic colitis :
- Transient is the most common form of ischemic colitis.It is characterized by an inflammatory lesion of the mucous membranes of the intestinal membranes with concomitant necrosis.The pathological process is accompanied by a strong pain syndrome and intestinal bleeding.
- Stenosing - is characterized by narrowing of some parts of the large intestine, developing as a result of frequent traumatic injuries.Inflammatory process with a given course of ischemic colitis affects not only the mucous intestinal membranes, but also muscle groups.Possible scarring of affected areas of the intestine.
- Gangrenous is the most severe form of ischemic colitis, affecting all layers of the large intestine.The disease is characterized by a sharp, sudden onset.It is accompanied by a strong pain syndrome, diarrhea, the appearance of bloody impurities in the stool, vomiting and febrile condition.
Note: this disease can occur both in acute and chronic form.
Where does it come from?
To date, the exact causes of the development and progression of ischemic colitis have not been established.
Note: according to the statistical data, patients in the age category over 60 years are the most susceptible to ischemic colitis!
Doctors identify the following factors that can provoke a disease such as ischemic colitis :
- low indices of arterial pressure( hypotonic disease);
- heart failure;
- intestinal vein thrombosis;
- intestinal obstruction;
- hernia formation;
- malignant tumor lesions localized in the large intestine;
- transferred in recent times to surgical interventions on the heart;
- idiopathic colitis;
- aortic dissection;
- liver transplant operations.
In addition, the cause of development of ischemic colitis can be a long and uncontrolled use of anti-inflammatory, hormonal, antibiotic and chemotherapeutic drugs.
Note: Drug use also significantly increases the risk of ischemic colitis!
Symptoms of ischemic colitis of the intestine
Symptomatic of ischemic colitis is largely due to the type and form of the course of the disease. Specialists distinguish the following clinical signs characteristic of ischemic colitis:
- painful sensations localized in the lower left part of the abdomen.There is a tendency to increase pain after eating;
- a permanent lack of appetite;
- a sharp decrease in body weight;
- stool disorders( diarrhea is periodically replaced by constipation);
- intestinal bleeding, bloody impurities or clots appear in the feces;
- abdominal syndrome( tension of abdominal muscle groups);
- bloating, flatulence;
- attacks of vomiting.
Note: fecal masses in patients suffering from ischemic colitis usually acquire a specific burgundy or scarlet color.
With further progression of the pathological process, as well as in the case of a gangrenous form of ischemic colitis, the following signs appear in patients indicating a general intoxication of the body:
- general weakness;
- increased fatigue;
- temperature increase;
- chills, feverish condition;
- sleep disorders;
- increased sweating.
If there are at least several signs of ischemic colitis, it is necessary to urgently consult a specialist, because this pathology is characterized by rapid development and threatens with numerous complications!
What is the danger?
Ischemic colitis is a rather insidious disease. The absence of timely, full-fledged treatment for this pathology can lead to the development of the following very dangerous complications of :
- intestinal obstruction;
- rupture of the walls of the large intestine;
- abnormal enlargement of the large intestine;
- Intestinal bleeding;
- necrosis of intestinal tissues;
- development of gangrene;
- inflammatory bowel disease.
Internal intestinal bleeding is one of the most dangerous complications of ischemic colitis. Such bleeding starts suddenly, and in the absence of emergency medical care, can lead to the death of the patient in a short time!
Diagnosis of ischemic colitis begins with laboratory tests of the patient's blood and stool. The following types of studies are also prescribed to patients:
- Angiography of the abdominal aorta;
- is laparoscopic;Bicycle ergometric tests;
Based on the results obtained, the expert puts the patient in the final diagnosis, determines the form and variety of ischemic colitis, develops the optimal therapeutic course that is most effective for a specific clinical case.
Treatment of ischemic colitis
In most cases, specialists prefer conservative therapeutic methods for treating ischemic colitis.The basis is medication.Patients are prescribed vasodilator, antiaggregant drugs.
It is absolutely necessary to carry out medical measures aimed at normalizing hyperlipidemia and dyslipidemia.This is necessary in order to prevent the progression of atherosclerotic disease!
To eliminate the pain syndrome so characteristic of ischemic colitis, nitrates and analgesics of are used.Symptomatic therapy aimed at improving the patient's condition and normalizing the functioning of the digestive system is under way.
To improve digestion and restore liver functions, enzyme preparations are used, essential phospholipids.With the development of concomitant diabetes, patients are prescribed hypoglycemic drugs.
Important! If a patient with diagnosed ischemic colitis suffers from obesity, mandatory treatment measures aimed at reducing body weight are mandatory.
In the presence of a concomitant infectious process, patients may be recommended antibiotic drugs, prescribed by the doctor exclusively on an individual basis.
In order to prevent possible dehydration of the body, with internal bleeding, severe diarrhea, or profuse vomiting, intravenous administration of the liquid can be indicated with the help of droppers.
A good effect is provided by such procedure as hyperbaric oxygenation, aimed at reducing the manifestation of tissue hypoxia.
During this manipulation in the area of the large intestine artificially delivered saturated oxygen, which feeds its tissues with useful nutrients.To achieve positive results, the patient needs about 10 sessions of hyperbaric oxygenation.
Surgical intervention in ischemic colitis is recommended in particularly severe cases, with the development of complications that pose a threat to the life of the patient( damage to the direct intestine, etc.). Obligatory indications for surgical treatment are manifestations of obstruction and suspicion of malignant processes.During the operation, specialists remove the affected areas of the intestine.
Adherence to a therapeutic diet is an indispensable condition for the successful fight against ischemic colitis! First of all, patients suffering from this gastroenterological disease need to exclude from their daily menu such foods:
- bakery and confectionery products, chocolate;
- fat, smoked products;
- meat and fish broth;Sorrel, radish, radish;
- meat and fish of fatty varieties;
- mustard and horseradish, spicy spices, spices, marinades;
- canned food;
- cocoa, coffee drinks;Acid
- sour fruit;
- fish caviar.
Important! It is strictly forbidden to drink alcoholic beverages with ischemic colitis!
The daily menu of patients with diagnosed ischemic colitis, according to the recommendations of specialists, should consist of the following products:
- vegetable fats;
- slightly boiled tea, compote, kissel;
- rye bread;
- skimmed milk products;
- cheese of low-fat varieties;
- vegetable soups;
- low-fat meat;
- are cereals;
- vegetables, herbs, berries, fruits;
Note: for a day sick, suffering from ischemic colitis, can afford to eat one egg and 50 grams of butter.
It is recommended to give preference to boiled, stewed, baked and steamed food. It is desirable to completely eliminate fried dishes from the diet!It is recommended to eat meals in small fractions, but often( 4-5 times during the day).
To prevent the development of ischemic colitis and to protect yourself as much as possible from the complications that this disease is fraught with, the following recommendations of specialists should be observed:
- to quit smoking;
- not to abuse alcoholic beverages;
- is the right, balanced diet, giving preference to healthy food and vegetable fats;
- monitor the body weight and timely combat the signs of obesity;
- to engage in exercise therapy, to lead a mobile lifestyle;
- monitor blood pressure;
- in time to deal with constipation and stool disorders;
- strengthen the immune system, take vitamin-mineral complexes.
Important! These recommendations are particularly relevant for elderly people and patients suffering from atherosclerosis, because they are in a zone of high risk!
It is also recommended to visit a specialist gastroenterologist regularly for preventive examinations.
Совинская Елена, medical reviewer