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Polyps of the large intestine

Polyps of the large intestine

Under polyps of the large intestine is understood the outgrowths of soft consistency, which are formed on the mucosa of the colon and rectum.Polyps are benign neoplasms, but according to medical statistics, on average, every fifth outgrowth is subsequently malignant, that is, malignant.

Table of contents: Classification Causes of colonic polyps Development of the disease Symptoms of colon polyps Diagnosis of colon polyps Treatment of polyps of the large intestine Prevention of colon polyps


Important: accounts for persons over 50 years account for almost 80% Of diagnosed polyps of the large intestine.

Single as well as multiple neoplasms that project into the lumen of the intestine are diagnosed.Diffuse polyposis requires special caution.Appearance of polyps can be different: globular, mushroom or branching.Some outgrowths have a foot, while others( so-called sessile) have a wide base.


Most often, polyps are painted in a grayish-red color, more rarely - yellowish or purple-red.

In its origin, polyps of the large intestine are divided into:

  • hyperplastic;
  • is inflammatory;
  • are neoplastic.

Hyperplastic outgrowths are formed due to hypertrophy of normal tissue( glandular epithelium).Inflammatory polyps are formed on the sites of the mucosa of the colon, where an inflammatory process takes place.The greatest danger is represented by neoplastic neoplasms.They can have both a benign and malignant character, since they appear with the growth of atypical cells.

Important: in the opinion of leading coloproctologists, colon cancer more often( in 50-75% of diagnosed cases) is a consequence of malignancy of polyps.

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The following varieties of polyps of the large intestine are distinguished according to the histological structure:

  • villous;
  • adenomatous;
  • mixed.

The most common are dense and smooth adematous neoplasms of rounded shape.

The extensions of polyps of villus type on the intestinal wall externally have some resemblance to the carpet.This species of outgrowth is subjected to malignancy in 40% of cases.

Causes of polyps of the large intestine

Reasons for appearance of colon polyps

Among the most likely causes of benign neoplasm formation are:

  • frequent( chronic) constipation;
  • of dyskinesia of the intestine;
  • power features.

A family( genetically determined) predisposition plays a very important role in the development of pathological changes.

Polyps are now being diagnosed more often due to the fact that a significant part of the population has changed the nature of food.The development of outgrowths in the intestines is facilitated by the consumption of a large amount of meat and various refined foods, as well as the shortage of coarse vegetal fiber in the diet.

Studies have confirmed that chronic and acute inflammations accelerate the aging of the epithelium, which causes uneven tissue overgrowth.

Diseases that can provoke colon polyps:

  • typhoid fever;
  • enteritis;
  • ulcerative proctosigmoiditis;
  • ulcerative colitis;
  • dysentery.

Note : it is noted that polyps develop more often in persons suffering from gastritis with reduced gastric acidity.

Against the background of inflammation, as a rule, not true polyps are formed, and so on.Pseudo-polyps.They often cause bleeding.

Development of the disease

Cells of the mucous membrane of the digestive tract organs are regularly and regularly renewed.In the event that this process is violated for some reason, separate local outgrowths are formed in the large intestine, which are called polyps.

Hereditary factors in combination with irrational nutrition interfere with the renewal of cells.Proteins and fats of animal origin are able to transform into carcinogenic compounds, which, with a delay in the lower gastrointestinal tract due to constipation, permanently affect the mucous membranes.This contributes to the growth of wall sections with the possible regeneration of normal cells into cancer cells.

Symptoms of colon polyps

Symptoms of polyps of the large intestine As mentioned above, polyp sizes are variable.Neoplasms, the size of which does not exceed a few millimeters, does not manifest itself in any way.They can only be found by chance during an instrumental examination of the intestine for another disease.

Polyps of the large intestine, which grow to several centimeters, in a number of cases lead to ulceration and even perforation of the intestinal wall.Breaking the integrity of the mucous membrane can cause the development of intestinal bleeding.

In some cases, the following clinical symptoms occur with colonic polyps:

  • blood collection( found in feces);
  • intestinal dysfunction;
  • pain in the abdominal region( rarely).

Against the backdrop of diffuse polyps, there is sometimes a rapid stool or diarrhea with an admixture of mucus and / or blood.Over time, the patient may develop exhaustion and anemia.

Symptoms of colon polyps are nonspecific, they can accompany a number of other pathologies of the digestive tract.

If the polyp has a leg and is located in the lower part of the rectum, during defecation it can fall out and be infringed by the rectal sphincter, which is accompanied by pain.In this case, bleeding is also possible.These outgrowths can also form from the hemorrhoidal node.

Diagnosis of intestinal polyps

Important: outgrowths of the mucosa of the rectum and colon are quite common pathologies.They are found in 15-20% of the adult population.Probably, the incidence rate is significantly higher, but not everything is going through the planned examination of the rectum in our country, and the disease often does not cause any complaints and does not manifest itself with any specific symptoms.

is used for the detection of polyps - a kind of X-ray study that involves the preliminary introduction of barium suspension into the intestine by means of an enema.

Important: in some cases, polyposis of the large intestine is combined with the appearance of tumors in other parts of the digestive tract.When detecting even single polyps of the large intestine, a fluoroscopy of the stomach is indicated.

Diagnosis of intestinal polyps The examination includes a digital examination of the rectum, as well as examination of the mucosa using a sigmoidoscope - a metal tube with a backlight, optics and biopsy tongs.In the course of sigmoidoscopy, you can examine 30 cm of the lower part of the digestive tract - the rectum and the sigmoid segment.

Polyps of the large intestine are diffuse in 30% of cases, therefore, even when a single growth of the mucosa is detected, a thorough thorough instrumental examination is required.

To clarify the diagnosis specialist gastroenterologist in a number of cases it is necessary to conduct additional instrumental examination of the large intestine.The main technique in this case is the colonoscopy .The endoscope tube is inserted into the anus and gradually moves along the bend of the intestine to a depth of 1 m. Before the procedure, the patient is given sedatives that minimize discomfort.

Diagnosis of intestinal polyps

When detecting neoplasms to clarify their nature, a biopsy is performed - taking a tissue fragment for histological examination.

Note: tumors are diagnosed in both children and adults, but the older the patient, the higher the probability of diagnosing his intestinal polyposis. Colonoscopy procedure is recommended for all persons who have reached the age of 50 years, and in the case of a burdened family history - and younger people.

Before colonoscopy, it is advisable to conduct a laboratory study of the analysis of feces for occult blood.The negative result is not a guarantee of the absence of pathological changes in the mucosa.

Note: in some countries of Europe practices the use of hemoculture tests to independently detect even a tiny presence of blood in the feces.The technique makes it possible to detect neoplasms in the intestines at early stages, with complete absence of complaints from the patient.Early diagnostics of large intestine polyps allows timely surgical treatment and prevention of colorectal cancer.

Treatment of colon polyps

Practice shows that conservative methods for getting rid of polyps of the large intestine are useless.All neoplasms found during the diagnostic procedures are mandatory to be removed with subsequent histological and cytological examination.

Immediate elimination of even the smallest outgrowths is the main measure to prevent the development of malignant tumors in the lower parts of the digestive tract.

To remove polyps of the large intestine, an endoscopic treatment technique is used, which is low-traumatic and does not require anesthesia.The patient is injected into the anus an endoscope almost similar to the colonoscopy device.The device is equipped with a special loop-type electrode, by means of which the outgrowth is pinched at the base and cut off.

Small polyps of the large intestine along with the surrounding area of ​​the mucosa are simply cauterized by a diathermocoagulant.


After endoscopic surgery, the patient can go home the very next day after eradicating the polyp.

If the formation has significant dimensions, it is not removed entirely, but by separate fragments.

In case of diffuse polyposis, surgeons resort to cavity surgery under general anesthesia, since this type of pathology requires a resection of the intestinal tract.

Biological material obtained during surgery is mandatory for histological examination to exclude or confirm malignancy.

Important: if polyposis affects the entire rectum, and pathological growths cause bleeding and are accompanied by the development of purulent proctitis, this is an indication for resection.

If the patient is removed large outgrowths( more than 2 cm across), multiple neoplasms( more than 5 pieces), and villous adenomas( one or several), then one year after the operation, it is mandatory to perform a control colonoscopy.

The probability of recurrence is negligible, but surgical treatment is not able to eliminate factors predisposing to the formation of polyps of the large intestine.Even if no new outgrowth is found, the diagnostic procedure is repeated every three years, since such patients are automatically included in the risk group.

Important: any polyp of the large intestine should be considered as a precancerous disease.


Prevention of colonic polyps

To prevent the development of benign bowel neoplasms, it is recommended that:

  • consume more herbal products containing coarse fiber;
  • if possible, replace animal fats with vegetable in the diet;
  • to minimize or completely eliminate the consumption of alcoholic beverages( including beer), since ethanol is a carcinogen.

List of products containing cellulose and recommended for the prevention of colon polyps:

  • Prevention of polyps of the large intestine apples;
  • zucchini;
  • beets;
  • cabbage;
  • turnip;
  • pumpkin;
  • corn;
  • bananas;
  • bran.

More detailed information on polyposis of the intestine you will get by viewing this video review:

Plisov Vladimir, medical reviewer

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