Abdominal pain hurts during pregnancy: causes and diagnosis
Pain in the abdomen during pregnancy worries every woman, literally drives her into a panic.But gynecologists assure - there are many physiological factors that can provoke a pain syndrome in the abdomen during pregnancy.Doctors differentiate pains by the terms of pregnancy - in the first-second trimester and in later terms.Contents:
Abdominal pain in early pregnancy
The lower abdomen during pregnancy hurts most often in the early stages, while distinguishing obstetric and non-occlusive pain.In the first case, the syndrome under consideration can cause physiological features of the body, ectopic pregnancy, premature detachment of the placenta, spontaneous abortion.Non-obstetric pains are those that result from pathologies developing in organs other than the reproductive system.
Do not worry a woman if in the early stages of pregnancy the lower abdomen hurts as follows:
- Drawing, non-intensive, recurrent pain in the abdomen, localized either on one side, or captures the entire abdomen - this indicates stretching of the ligaments,On which the uterus holds.
- The pains are spastic, characterized by constancy and lack of intensity - this is due to hormonal changes in the body.
- Spasms of very low intensity with the release of a minimum amount of blood from the vagina - usually this occurs 10-15 days after conception and means only that the fertilized egg is attached to the uterine wall, and the embryo is already beginning its development.Please note: spasms can only be on the left or just on the right side of the abdomen, the localization of pain depends on which fetal egg has attached to which wall of the uterus.
If a woman has an ectopic pregnancy, the pain syndrome will have the following characteristics:
- Pain is a stitch that pierces the entire abdominal cavity;
- attacks of pain appear on the principle of contractions - they are strong and frequent;
- appears bleeding or brown spots on the underwear - it depends on whether the rupture of the fallopian tube has occurred or has been limited to all tearing.
Please note: with ectopic pregnancy, some women, except for abdominal pain, experience severe spasms in the lower back.The pain can last several days, up to a month, but the ectopic pregnancy always ends with the death of the fetal egg, the rupture of the fallopian tube and surgical intervention.
In the early stages of pregnancy, abdominal pain may appear due to abnormalities in the intestine - due to hormonal changes in the body it starts to function "sluggishly", the products of vital activity move slowly, hardening and provoking constipation in the gut.In addition, a woman may be concerned about increased gas production and, as a result, swelling of the intestines - this also causes pain syndrome.
Pregnancy is quite a serious "test" for the body and in the case of previously diagnosed inflammatory processes of the chronic nature of internal organs, abdominal pain will occur without fail.With adnexitis( inflammation of the ovaries), pyelonephritis( kidney pathology), cystitis( inflammatory process in the bladder), the pain syndrome will be characterized as unstable, pulling and wavy.Pay attention: abdominal pain during pregnancy due to chronic inflammatory diseases is never accompanied by bleeding.
Diagnosis of abdominal pain in early pregnancy
If a painful syndrome occurs in the abdomen, even if it is not of an intensive nature, early in pregnancy, a woman should immediately consult a doctor for examination, counseling and treatment if necessary. The gynecologist will necessarily send the patient with such complaints to a deep examination:
- ultrasound examination of pelvic organs - will help to identify pathological changes in the structure of the uterus, detect neoplasms( eg, fibromyoma) and ectopic pregnancy;
- computed tomography is a more accurate method of diagnosis, which not only gives an idea of the clinical picture, but also differentiates pathologies, determines the benign / malignant nature of tumors;
- laboratory examination of blood and urine - there is an opportunity to identify inflammatory processes outside the reproductive system.Of course, at the first admission the gynecologist collects data on the sexual development of a woman( when the first menstrual period started, whether there were irregularities in the menstrual cycle) and about previously diagnosed diseases.Of no less importance in the diagnosis of abdominal pain during pregnancy are data on previously performed instrumental and / or vacuum abortions, spontaneous miscarriages and surgical interventions for ectopic pregnancy.
If the abdominal pain during pregnancy in the first or second trimester has an exclusively physiological etiology, then no gynecologist will prescribe any treatment.But dynamic monitoring of the state of women's health must be carried out necessarily - any pain syndrome can result in bleeding and miscarriage / spontaneous abortion.
In case of detection of chronic inflammatory or infectious diseases, a therapy will be prescribed that does not affect the fetal development of the fetus.
When diagnosing ectopic pregnancy, surgical treatment and a long course of rehabilitation with the use of hormonal preparations, the passage of sanatorium treatment are shown.
For pain due to bloating or constipation, a woman will be recommended to adjust the diet, replacing fatty, "heavy" foods with more easily digestible.
Abdominal pain in late pregnancy
If the abdomen hurts during pregnancy in later terms, this may indicate some physiological reasons:
- Constipation, increased gas production, eating disorders and eating patterns.The intestine and so on during pregnancy are exposed to pressure from the growing and increasing weight of the uterus, and if the woman neglects simple rules of nutrition, the pain will be permanent.A characteristic feature of the pain syndrome with dysfunction of the intestine is short-term spasms that appear 20-30 minutes after ingestion and disappear after the digestion process( maximum hour).
- Sprain of ligaments supporting the uterus in the desired position.At the very beginning of pregnancy, the ligaments only begin to stretch, but in later terms they experience more severe pressure.For such pains there is a definite characteristic: aching, with irradiation in the lower back, intensifying with sharp movements and coughing / sneezing.
- Too much strain on the abdominal muscle tissue.This is also due to the growing uterus and the increased weight of the fetus.
But often the pain syndrome that appears in late pregnancy can signal the development of pathological conditions:
- There is an exacerbation of chronic inflammatory processes in the pancreas( pancreatitis), kidneys( pyelonephritis), bladder( cystitis).But in this case the pain will be sharp, prolonged and pressing, they are always accompanied by hyperthermia( fever), signs of intoxication of the body( nausea, dizziness, vomiting, weakness) may appear.
- Premature birth begins.Such a course of events is possible at any time of pregnancy, but if in the first trimester miscarriage first manifests bloody discharge, then in the third trimester it all starts with abdominal pain.It will be pulling, aching and girdling( goes to the waist region).Immediately after the appearance of pain, the woman also notes vaginal discharge, which can have different structure and shade - from pink-transparent to scarlet, viscous or watery.
- Premature abruption of the placenta.In the process, the placenta is detached from the uterine wall - the vessels are torn, which causes severe pain and bleeding.Early placental abruption can occur due to abdominal trauma, after excessive physical overexertion, with diagnosed late toxicosis or persistently high blood pressure.
- Bile stasis in the gallbladder was formed.This pathology develops because of the increased production of the hormone progesterone - it is responsible for relaxing the uterus, preventing miscarriage or premature birth.But one of the "side effects" of this effect is the relaxation of the smooth muscles of the nearby organs - the gall bladder suffers most often.The muscles of this organ are relaxed, ejection of the right amount of bile when food gets into the stomach does not occur and the result is bile stasis, abdominal pain with localization on the right.The pain syndrome is unstable, spasmodic, accompanied by nausea and a bitter taste in the mouth.
- Rupture of the uterus.This can happen if there is a scar on the hollow organ - for example, a previous operation was performed or previous operations resulted in a caesarean section operation.
If a woman experiences abdominal pain in later pregnancy, this is an excuse for visiting a gynecologist outside the schedule of examinations.The doctor begins diagnostics with a deep study of the history of life and illness of a woman - for example, if there are chronic pathologies in an anamnesis, then it is worthwhile to conduct a profile examination.The next stage is ultrasound examination of the uterus and fallopian tubes.The doctor will be able to detect problems in the uterus, with timely treatment it will be possible to diagnose the onset of untimely placental abruption or the beginning of premature birth.
In case of an emergency situation( a woman experiences severe pain, there are bloody discharges, the patient's condition deteriorates sharply, she loses consciousness), the pregnant woman is shown to perform a surgical procedure without preliminary examination.By conducting cesarean section, it is possible to save the life of the fetus and the health of the mother.
Please note: In case of sudden, intense pain in the abdomen during pregnancy, accompanied by blood discharge from the vagina, you should immediately seek professional help.Do not go to the gynecological clinic or the maternity hospital yourself - from the first minutes of such a condition you need medical support.
If the stomach aches for physiological reasons, the following measures can be taken:
- to adjust the diet by eliminating too fatty, spicy dishes, refusing spices and sauces;
- establish a clear schedule for food intake - snacks, eating cookies / cakes / chips in front of the TV or reading books should be excluded;
- get rid of constipation - eat prunes, dried apricots, drink low-fat kefir for the night;
- lead an active lifestyle - passivity in late pregnancy leads to stagnation of bile.
Abdominal pain in pregnancy should not lead to panic - enough to calm down, visit a gynecologist to find out the cause of the syndrome and follow all the recommendations and appointments of specialists.According to statistics, the abdomen usually hurts during pregnancy due to physiological changes in the body, which are not pathologies and do not threaten the life of the fetus and the woman.
More information about abdominal pain during pregnancy you get by watching this video review:
Yana Tsygankova, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category.