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Allergies: causes, types, symptoms, first aid and treatment

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Allergy is familiar to almost everyone, but what it really is, what symptoms indicate the progression of an inadequate response of the body to a particular stimulus, how to provide first aid, and how the treatment should be known only to units.

Meanwhile, an allergy is considered one of the most common diseases in the world - 85% of the entire population of our planet in one way or another suffered an allergic reaction.

Table of contents: General information on allergy Causes of allergy development Allergy types and symptoms

General information about allergies

Allergy is an increased sensitivity of the body to some irritant.These provoking substances can be those that are inside the human body, and those with whom there is contact.The body of people prone to allergies, absolutely safe / habitual substances perceives as dangerous, alien and begins to develop antibodies against them.Moreover, each "irritant" produces an "individual" allergen - that is, an allergy to the pollen of the tulip, animal hair and / or milk can manifest itself in different ways.

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As such, allergy treatments still do not exist. Modern medicine is constantly conducting various studies and is looking for ways to solve this problem, but no tangible results so far. What can be done at the moment:

  • by means of laboratory examination to reveal the allergen;
  • to take medications that are able to relieve the symptoms of the disease in question;
  • as much as possible to limit contact with the revealed allergen.

Causes of allergy development

It is impossible to single out any one cause of allergy development - there are a lot of predisposing factors that can provoke the condition in question.To , they are:

  • street, book and / or home dust;
  • spores of fungi and mold;
  • pollen of any plants;
  • some food products( the most common allergens include milk, eggs, fish and seafood, some fruits and nuts);
  • insect bites;
  • cleaning and washing agents;
  • any chemicals - paints, gasoline, varnishes, solvents and so on;
  • animal wool;
  • some medicines;
  • latex.


Very often, an allergy is a hereditary disease - at least, medicine knows cases when the presence of allergies in parents necessarily affects the health of their children.

Allergy types and symptoms

It depends on the specific form of the disease being treated in a person, and the presence of some specific symptoms also depends.

Respiratory allergy

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Develops against the background of ingestion of allergens into the body through the respiratory tract. Symptoms of this type of allergic reaction are:

  • Allergy38 frequent sneezing;
  • itching in the nose, accompanied by a runny nose;
  • strong attack of a dry type;
  • wheezing in the lungs - they are audible when a person takes a deep breath and / or exhalation;
  • attacks of suffocation.

Note: , the main symptoms of respiratory allergy are bronchial asthma and allergic rhinitis( rhinitis).


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Accompanied by pronounced manifestations on the skin - rashes, irritations. From the symptoms of dermatosis it is possible to distinguish:

  • reddening of the skin - it can be localized and appear only in the places of direct contact with the allergen, and may be frontal;
  • skin becomes dry, scaly and itchy;
  • appear and rapidly spread rashes that mimic eczema;
  • blisters and intense swelling may be present.

Allergic conjunctivitis

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Eye allergy In this case, an inadequate response of the body to any stimulus will be manifested by a deterioration in the state of eye health. Symptoms of this kind of allergy will be:

  • marked dryness of the eyes;
  • increased lacrimation;
  • present around the eyes swelling.


This is an allergic reaction of the body, which is manifested by a disorder of the gastrointestinal tract.Most often, enteropathy is developed for food, medicines. Symptoms of this type of allergy will be:

  • nausea;
  • vomiting;
  • diarrhea( diarrhea);
  • constipation;
  • pain in the intestines of varying intensity( intestinal colic).

Note: can develop Quincke's edema with enteropathy - lips and tongue swell, a person starts to suffocate.

Anaphylactic shock

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This is the most dangerous manifestation of allergy, which is always developing rapidly. In just a few seconds the patient appears:

  • intense dyspnea;
  • convulsive syndrome;
  • loss of consciousness;
  • involuntary urination and defecation;
  • a pronounced rash all over the body;
  • vomiting.

Please note: if a person has the above symptoms, then immediately call the ambulance team, or independently deliver the patient to a medical institution.Anaphylactic shock, as a rule, ends with a lethal outcome in the absence of the provision of qualified medical care.

It should be noted that allergy symptoms are often confused with the symptoms of colds - acute respiratory infections, influenza.But to distinguish the allergy from the common cold is easy enough - first, with allergies the body temperature remains within normal limits, and secondly, the allergy is never characterized by thick, greenish-yellow mucous discharge.

How to detect a specific allergen

If allergic symptoms appear, but the specific stimulus is not known, you will need to seek the help of specialists.In addition, that the doctor will make an accurate diagnosis, he will refer the patient to specific examinations that will help to identify the true allergen. In the framework of such surveys, the following are conducted:

  1. Skin tests.The advantage of this method of examination is the simplicity of the procedure, the speed of obtaining results and low cost.Some facts on the dermal sample:
  • Check for allergies, various allergens are administered to the patient's skin, which are selected by the doctor;
  • introduced may be up to 20 allergens;
  • for each specific allergen, a specific area of ​​the skin is secreted;
  • the selected solution is applied to the skin, then the skin is slightly scratched - this can cause unpleasant sensations, but in general the procedure is painless.

With a positive reaction in the place of application of the allergen, redness, itching and swelling appear.

Please note: is prohibited from taking any antihistamine medications 2 days before the scheduled day of skin tests, as this can lead to false results.

  1. Blood test for the presence of antibodies.Blood is taken from the vein, which is then sent to the laboratory for examination.The results will be ready in 10-14 days.

Doctors say that this type of examination can not give a full answer to the question of the causes of allergy development.

  1. Naked samples.This examination is carried out with dermatoses - conditions in which the allergy manifests itself on the skin.In this way, you can determine the body's response to:
  • formaldehyde;
  • chrome;
  • benzocaine;
  • neomycin;
  • lanolin;
  • corticosteroids;
  • epoxy resins;
  • rosin.
  1. Provocative tests.This examination is considered the only one that gives a 100% correct answer to the question of which stimulus triggered the development of an allergy.Provocative tests are conducted only in a specialized department under the supervision of a group of physicians.A possible allergen is introduced into the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, under the tongue, into the nasal cavity.

First aid for allergy

If there are signs of an allergy, then you need to give the patient first aid. The optimal option will be an immediate call to a doctor, but if this is not possible, then you should perform the following manipulations:

  • In-road-with-a-child under running water clean the place of contact with the allergen, if necessary, rinse the nose, stomach;
  • limit contact with the irritant, if possible, completely eliminate it;
  • in case of an insect bite and leaving a sting in the skin, which provokes the development of an intense allergic reaction, the sting should be removed as quickly as possible;
  • a cold compress or ice is applied to the itching area;
  • the patient needs to give an antihistamine drug - for example, Clemastin, Loratidine, Chlorpiramin and others.

If within 20-30 minutes the patient's condition has not improved, and even more so if worsened, then immediately call the ambulance team.

In some cases, severe symptoms of an allergic reaction can develop:

  • asphyxiation;
  • nausea and uncontrollable vomiting;
  • increased heart rate and respiratory rate;
  • puffiness of the whole body, including pharynx;
  • general weakness;
  • a growing sense of anxiety;
  • loss of consciousness.

And the above symptoms indicate that the patient is at risk of death - you need to take urgent measures to stabilize his condition. Intensive care measures include:

  • if the patient is conscious, then he is given a drink of any antihistamines, it is better to use third generation drugs for this;
  • patient must be laid in bed, take off his clothes, head turned to one side;
  • when breathing and palpitations are stopped, it is urgent to do artificial respiration and indirect heart massage, but only if there is certain knowledge.

Allergy treatment

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Allergic reaction has a complex mechanism of development, therefore the treatment will be selected by doctors in a strictly individual order and only after the examination of the patient.Most often prescribed antihistamines, immunotherapy, steroid sprays can be used for allergic rhinitis( rhinitis) or decongestants.

In addition, the patient must take care of his own health - to avoid contact with the allergen, to regularly maintain supportive therapy, to treat inflammatory / infectious / viral diseases in a timely manner so that the immune system works fully.Do not forget that there is an allergy to medications, and in this case you will need to know the specific means to exclude them when treating any diseases.

Allergy is a complex disease that needs to be controlled by both the patient and the health care providers.Only an accurate knowledge of the specific allergen that provokes the development of the disease in question, the timely treatment can normalize health and improve the life of the patient.

Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category

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