Adenovirus infection in children: symptoms and treatment
Adenovirus infection in children is manifested by the following symptoms:
- Pershenie, sore throat and sore throat( worse during swallowing);
- expressed difficulty in nasal breathing;
- increase in total body temperature( from 37.5 ° C to 39 ° C);
- affection of the conjunctiva( accompanied by lacrimation, swelling of the eyelids, a cut in the eyes and the presence of a purulent discharge);
- appetite impairment;
- sleep disorders;
- general weakness;
- shortness of breath;
- increased irritability;
- plentiful allocation from a nose( in the beginning of disease a secret watery and transparent, and then - dense green);
- cough( initially dry, and for 3-4 days wet with sputum discharge);
- pain in the abdominal area( near the navel);
- vomiting( not always);
- diarrhea( up to 5 times a day, without mucus, blood, etc.);
- puffiness and hyperemia of the tonsils;
- mucus on the back of the pharynx;
- point purulent coating on tonsils;
- enlarged lymph nodes.
Lymph nodes, although enlarged in size, but not soldered to surrounding tissues.Their palpation during the examination does not cause pain.
For a particularly severe course of adenovirus infection, a symptom such as hepatosplenomegaly, i.e., enlargement of the liver and spleen
is important. Important: in children of younger age group( especially in infants) may develop seizures at the peak of a febrile reaction.For young children, stool and bloating are more typical due to inflammation of the mesenteric( mesenteric) lymph nodes.
The degree of expression of conjunctivitis in adenovirus infection is different.Its symptoms are manifested at different stages of the disease( both at the beginning and 3-5 days).First one eye is affected, and soon( usually 1-2 days later) the inflammatory process affects the second one.Eyelids in the child edematous, and in the morning it can be difficult for a patient to open his eyes, since a purulent discharge separates the eyelashes.
Depending on the form of adenoviral conjunctivitis( film or follicular), one of two standard treatment regimens can be used:
Complications of adenovirus infection in children
The average duration of the disease in children is 1 week, provided uncomplicated flow.With prolonged symptoms, the symptomatology is noted for 2-3 weeks.Clinical manifestations of affection of the conjunctiva abate earlier, and inflammation in the nasopharynx and upper respiratory tract can persist for 3 weeks.
In a number of cases, there is a "wavy" course of the process, when against a background of obvious improvement some of the characteristic symptoms again clearly appear.
Complications that develop against the background of adenovirus infection are usually due to the active multiplication of pathogenic microflora due to general weakening of the body.Bacterial infection affects mainly the respiratory system, as a result of which bronchitis and pneumonia often develop( pneumonia of bacterial origin).
If the virus affects the abdominal lymph nodes of the peritoneum( mesentery), appendicitis development is not excluded, which requires urgent surgical intervention.
Among other possible complications - tonsillitis, sinusitis and exacerbation of chronic diseases.
Infants are more likely to have such complications as inflammation of the middle ear( otitis).In addition, in toddlers is possible so-called."Generalization" of the pathological process.The causative agent with a blood stream can get to various organs.In particular, the development of viral( hemorrhagic) pneumonia is not ruled out.In this severe complication, the infectious agent affects the blood vessels of the pulmonary alveoli( vesicles).As a result of stagnation of blood, gas exchange is disrupted, and the child quickly develops respiratory failure.
Very characteristic symptomatology in most cases allows you to make an accurate diagnosis based on patient complaints and clinical manifestations.
It is also important to correctly differentiate adenovirus infection from others, for example, from rhinovirus:
Atypical course of adenovirus infection may require differential diagnosis of the disease with a pathology such as infectious mononucleosis.A laboratory study of the patient's blood is conducted to detect antibodies.
During the epidemic, the virological method of diagnosis is used to determine the exact type of adenovirus.The material for the study is flushing from the mucous membrane of the patient's nasopharynx.
In a laboratory study of peripheral blood, there are general changes for viral diseases - lymphocytosis, leukopenia and a slight increase in the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation.General blood and urine tests for this disease are not very informative.
Treatment of adenovirus infection in children
In most cases, treatment of adenovirus infection in children is performed on an outpatient basis, i.e. at home.The placement of a child in a hospital may be required in case of a serious course of the disease or the development of serious complications, in particular, during the generalization of the process.
Specific therapies are not developed, and standard antiviral drugs are ineffective.
In this regard, only symptomatic therapy is performed.Bed rest is necessary for the child until the fever passes.Indications for the appointment of antipyretics( antipyretic drugs) is an increase in body temperature above 38.5 ° C.At lower values, these agents are used if the likelihood of seizures is high against the backdrop of a febrile reaction( for example, in young children).
Pediatricians recommend giving children Nurofen or Paracetamol, strictly observing age-related dosages.
In addition to pharmacological agents, to reduce temperature in the treatment of adenovirus infection, physical methods can be used, such as cold wiping and the application of an ice-warmer in the projection of large blood vessels.To accelerate the elimination of toxins from the body, the patient is shown a profuse warm drink.
To soften dry nasal cough, milk is helped with a small amount of baking soda and alkaline mineral water.Antitussives should not be used!To reduce inflammation of the mucosa of the respiratory tract, the child shows inhalations with Lazolvan preparation, as well as with physiological sodium chloride solution.To dilute the bronchial secretion( sputum), it is recommended to give Bromhexine and ATSs.To improve sputum discharge with wet cough, mucolytic and expectorants are indicated( Ambroxol, Mucaltin).Remember that the best suitable drugs can be prescribed only by the attending physician.
Inflammation of the conjunctiva requires regular eye rinsing.For the procedure, you can use a weak( pale pink) solution of potassium permanganate, or furacilin.Effective also natural remedies - decoction of chamomile flowers and weak tea tea.Of the drugs for the treatment of conjunctivitis in adenovirus infection, ophthalmoferon drops are also shown( even in unilateral inflammation it should be buried in both eyes) and Oxolin ointment( placed behind the lower eyelids).
If the nasal congestion can be used vasoconstrictive drops Nazivin or Galazolin( in the "child" concentration).Use these funds can be 3-4 times a day and preferably no more than 3-5 consecutive days to avoid the development of drug dependence.
For rinses of a sore throat shows a means with an antiseptic effect - a solution of furacilin and a decoction of chamomile.
The presence of complications due to the attachment of bacterial infection is an indication for the treatment of course systemic antibiotic therapy.
In adenovirus infection, a child with a sore throat is difficult to eat regular food, so his diet should include cleaned and semi-liquid dishes.To strengthen immunity, vitamins are needed, which the kid should receive both with fresh vegetables and fruits( or juices), and in the form of complex preparations.
In the room where the sick child is, it is necessary to carry out a wet cleaning twice a day.The room should be ventilated more often.Before the symptoms of conjunctivitis subside, it is important to provide muted lighting.
Walking in the open air is allowed only with the disappearance of symptoms with normal overall health.
A specific vaccine is not currently developed.
In the period of seasonal outbreaks, it is necessary to visit places of mass congestion of people( including public transport) as less often as possible.The kid needs a general strengthening of the body, which means hardening and nutrition.
In the cold season it is possible to recommend an additional reception of multivitamin complexes.The child should be taught to strictly observe the rules of personal hygiene.
A good prophylactic is leukocyte interferon( diluted with water and buried in the nasal passages).
To get more information about the treatment of infectious diseases in children, in particular, the treatment of adenovirus infection, we recommend that you view this video review - advice to parents is given by Dr. Komarovsky:
Chumachenko Olga, pediatrician