Dermatitis: types, clinical picture, treatment
Dermatitis is a group of skin diseases that can be caused by external and internal stimuli.This disease has a classification, which implies the isolation of several types and forms of dermatitis - each of them has its own features of manifestation and flow.Table of contents:
Causes of dermatitis
The main forms / forms of the skin disease under consideration can develop for long-term and close reasons.The first category of reasons are:
- Genetic predisposition.According to statistics, parents with diagnosed dermatitis of any form have children with the same disease in 96% of cases, if only one parent is affected by this skin disease, then this probability will be only 58%.
- Acquired predisposition.We are talking about those patients who in childhood suffered atopic dermatitis - they develop a predisposition to the appearance of various types and forms of the skin disease under consideration.And, at parents of dermatitis never in anamnesis was not.
Related causes of dermatitis( they are still classified as provoked):
- Stress state.Many are convinced that stress is a simple malaise, which quickly passes after a proper rest.In fact, a stressful condition is a complex protective reaction of the body, which proceeds under the influence of hormones.
- Entering into the blood of irritants that can cause dermatitis - chemicals, pollen of plants, food, medicines and more.
Please note : , even if stimuli have entered the bloodstream, this does not mean immediate development of dermatitis - it is necessary that the favorable factors of :
- be present, such as sun or quartz lamps;
- prolonged cold exposure to the skin - for example, dermatitis may occur after glove failure during a cold winter;
- high air temperature;
- strongly weakened immunity - for example, against the background of a long-term disease.
Types of pathology
In general, in medicine there are several dozens of types of dermatitis, but there are also the most frequently diagnosed.
This type of disease is manifested exclusively in the cold season, it is more often diagnosed in patients of elderly and senile age. The causes of dry dermatitis are:
- dry air indoors;
- prolonged exposure to cold air;
- functional / organic diseases;
- is a hereditary and psychosomatic factor.
Dry dermatitis has a clear localization - on the feet and is extremely rare in other parts of the body. Symptoms of dry dermatitis are considered to be:
- excessively dry skin on the feet;
- cracking of scaly patches on the feet;
- itching at the site of localization of skin disease;
- redness of the affected skin.
A distinctive feature of this type of dermatitis is its long duration and a clear seasonality of exacerbations.
Allergic dermatitisWe recommend reading:
In this case, the cause of dermatitis development will be the effect on the body of an external stimulus - it can be :
- pollen of plants;
- home dust;
- animal wool;
- food product;
- cosmetic products.
Allergic dermatitis appears only if there is direct contact with the allergen. This type of skin disease under consideration is indicated by the following features:
- redness and peeling of individual areas of the skin;
- itching - it can be intolerable, and can differ weak intensity;
- localized puffiness on the face;
- increased lacrimation.
A distinctive feature of allergic dermatitis is the complete absence of any targeted treatment, because it is sufficient to remove the allergen from the environment and all the described symptoms disappear within 1-2 days.The pediatrician tells the allergic dermatitis in children:
Very similar to allergic, but differs in that it can occur after direct contact of the skin with an allergen / irritant.For example, if a person wears synthetic clothing, and he has a hypersensitivity to such fibers, when using a latex pillow.To contact dermatitis is also photoderma - a negative reaction to the sun's rays.Symptoms of contact dermatitis:
- Redness on the skin - it is localized;
- slight itching of the skin;
- slight peeling.
This type of skin disease is the easiest in both diagnosis and treatment.But if the symptoms of contact dermatitis are ignored, the usual redness will develop into zones with vesicles, and a slight itch will manifest itself more intensely.
This type of disease in the people is called "salotherapy".What's happening?Each person in the body has saprophyte flora, which can suddenly start to multiply actively.It is the products of its activity that affect the secretion of the sebaceous glands( changing its composition) - this moment is the beginning of the disease.
Remember: nothing happens in the human body all at once / suddenly and without reason - seborrheic dermatitis can develop against a weakened immune system.Doctors of dermatologists distinguish two types of seborrheic dermatitis:
- dry - the skin is highly flaky, and the face is rapidly covered with whitish, dry "scales", which it is almost impossible to get rid of with conventional cosmetics; and
- bold - on the skin there are massive pustular rashes, the skin of the face becomes shiny.
Seborrheic dermatitis occurs irrespective of the patient's age and must undergo a deep, full-fledged, comprehensive treatment under the supervision of specialists.
Most commonly diagnosed in patients aged 20-30 years, represents red spots around the lips that can spread to the bridge of the nose and eyelids.The spots can have different shades of red - from pale pink to crimson.
The cause of oral dermatitis is the use of any specific substances that provoked such a reaction of the body - such as toothpaste, lipstick, shaving gel or aftershave, and more.The impetus to the development of this type of dermatitis can serve as a weakened immune system, a violation in metabolic processes, problems in the work of the nervous and digestive systems.
It is not difficult to get rid of these unpleasant manifestations of oral dermatitis - it is enough just to change the usual hygiene means.Many people simply do not pay attention to the pale pink spots on the face - in this case, in some time in their place, there will appear rough thickenings.
Most often occurs against untreated or incorrectly performed therapeutic measures in relation to allergic dermatitis.But the atopic form of the disease in question can be hereditary, and moreover, it can "sleep" in the body for a long time and only appear under certain circumstances.
The most common impetus to the development of atopic dermatitis is nerve shocks, hormonal spike, improper skin care for a long time.Symptoms of atopic dermatitis:
- on the skin there are bright red spots;
- at the location of red spots, the patient feels a strong, sometimes intolerable, itching;
- in a short time from the onset of symptoms of atopic dermatitis on the spots may appear crusts.
Note : atopic dermatitis is called eczema and is a danger to the health and full life of the patient - his acute form quickly enough turns into a chronic one.
The disease can occur not only in the superficial, but also in the deep layers of the skin. There is infectious dermatitis for the following reasons:
- transferred smallpox, scarlet fever, measles;
- formation of wound surfaces on the skin, postoperative infection with streptococcal / staphylococcus.
Manifestations of infectious dermatitis are quite clearly expressed - these are abscesses, abscesses, boils and carbuncles.
Occurs only on the background of a fungal lesion of the skin, the causes of this type of dermatitis are:
- reduced immunity;
- constantly increased skin moisture level;
- low skin resistance.
Always accompanied by severe itching, can occur in acute and / or chronic form. Symptoms of ear dermatitis are:
- severe itching inside the auricle;
- peeling of the skin of the auricle;
- appearance on the ground peeling dry crusts.
Among the reasons for the appearance of ear dermatitis, doctors distinguish the irritation of the auricle, previously produced combing of the ears, fungal lesions, traumatizing the ears.
In addition, allergic dermatitis is singled out separately - it is diagnosed only in those patients who have a history of hypersensitivity or individual intolerance to certain specific foods, medications and other irritants.
Forms of dermatitis
This skin disease can occur in two forms:
- Acute dermatitis.It begins with a sudden itch of skin surfaces, a slight increase in temperature and nasal congestion.Literally a few hours later, a rash appears on the skin that is characteristic of a particular kind of dermatitis - it can be papules, vesicles.
- Chronic dermatitis.It flows in two stages: remission - in this case, the symptoms will be almost absent, exacerbations - itching, rashes and redness of the skin are intense.
General symptoms of dermatitis
For each of the above types of skin disease under consideration, characteristic symptoms are identified. But doctors also distinguish several common signs of dermatitis that will be characteristic for each of the existing types of disease:
- Itching.The intensity of it can be different and depends on how much nerve fibers in the dermis are irritated.Most often, itching and eruptions always occur simultaneously, but in some cases, itching is an allergic reaction of the body to pathology - for example, with atopic dermatitis.
- Rashes.They can be completely different - from small pink spots to clearly localized papules with serous contents.Most often, rashes are on moving parts of the body - for example, joints, neck.
- Skin peeling.Occurs only with too dry skin, can be expressed strongly and practically absent.
- Redness.This symptom for chronic dermatitis is absolutely atypical, but in acute form it is the defining feature on early diagnosis.
- Exudation.This term refers to wetting of damaged skin areas - it often occurs with neglected forms of dermatitis, when plaques and crusts are formed.
Note : the symptoms of dermatitis quickly enough and effectively disappear after the use of certain medications.But doctors emphasize - it is not enough to get rid of only uncomfortable sensations, it is necessary to undergo a thorough examination and find out what are the causes of dermatitis.Only this information will help the doctor to prescribe a deep, effective treatment.
Treatment of dermatitis
Dermatitis can occur in different forms and forms, so there is no well-defined treatment for this skin disease - the selection of specific medicines is carried out by the physician on an individual basis. The specialists of the following prescribing scheme adhere to:
- The pathogenesis of the disease is treated in a complex way:
- neutralizes the negative effect of the detected pathogenic factor;
- assistance in relieving symptoms;
- restoration and strengthening of the body's immune system.
- Treatment of dermatitis occurs until the moment of complete regeneration of the skin( healing of damaged areas).As a rule, this process lasts no less than 28 days.
It is compulsory for diagnosed dermatitis that a patient must follow a diet - it is necessary to correct the work of metabolic processes, to perform the simplest cleaning of the body from toxins.Patients should remember which foods can be safely used( hypoallergenic), and which ones should be avoided altogether( hyper-allergic). To hypoallergenic products include:
- fish, lean veal, poultry, lamb, beef liver and tongue, cottage cheese( low fat), butter;
- cucumbers, zucchini, pearl barley / millet / buckwheat and other cereals, vegetable oils, gooseberries, pears, fresh cabbage;
- sour-milk drinks( attention - they should not contain dyes and preservatives!), Compotes from dried fruits, not strong green tea;Prunes, dried fruits.
These products can be eaten even without consulting a doctor - they do not provoke an exacerbation of dermatitis. You should limit the use of those products that can trigger the occurrence of allergies:
- chocolate, cocoa, coffee and black tea;
- sauerkraut, legumes, red vegetables and fruits;
- rabbit, horse;
- whole milk;
- mayonnaise, sauces, ketchups;
- canned products( meaning industrial preservation);
- all tropical fruits.
More detailed lists of hypo- and hyperallergenic products are presented in the table:
How to cure dermatitis with folk remedies?
There are many ways to get rid of unpleasant symptoms of dermatitis folk remedies.But when using them, note that this is not a panacea - doctors will still need help!
Cleanness.Collect the young celandine, get the juice out of it - this can be done by grinding and squeezing the mass through gauze.Moisten gauze / bandage in the juice( it needs to be diluted with water in a proportion of 1: 2) and make applications - apply gauze to the affected areas of the skin.
The sequence.It is necessary to take a dry turn( 1 tablespoon), boil with boiling water( 150 ml) and insist for at least 3 hours.This infusion is also intended for applications.
Periwinkle.Boil 300 grams of dried leaves periwinkle in a liter of water( boil 10 minutes), cool, strain and add the broth to the bathroom.The remaining cooked cake can be applied to the affected areas of the skin on the principle of compress.
Japanese Sophora.The fruits of this tree have antipuretic and anti-inflammatory effect - just brew 100 grams of Japanese Sophora fruit with 300 ml of water.
Affected skin areas can be treated with geranium oil - it has anti-inflammatory and moisturizing effects.Prepare butter easily: you need to take geranium flowers( usual room) and fill them with a 0.5 liter bottle.Pour everything with vegetable oil - it is optimal to use olive oil, but you can get by with conventional vegetable( refined).To insist on a mass, it takes 5 days in the dark and cool, then 6 weeks - in warmth and light.
Dermatitis is quite complex in development, but this does not mean that the disease can not be defeated. There are a lot of cases when the patient is completely cured of dermatitis, but some conditions must be observed:
- only under the supervision of a doctor;
- follow the diet;
- regularly conduct procedures from the category of traditional medicine.
You will receive more information about the types of dermatitis and treatment of this disease by viewing a short video clip:
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category.