Abuse of cathinol: dependence development and treatment
The alkaloid cathinone( norephedron) belongs to the class of psychotropic amphetamine compounds.The raw materials for obtaining this substance are African kata shrubs.In the Russian Federation, it is legally referred to the "List I", which includes powerful psychoactive substances, including those related to drugs. Catinon is less toxic and its effect is less pronounced than that of amphetamine.The use of this alkaloid causes dependence.
Get the substance by handicraft from medical preparations containing ephedrine.In homemade narcotic drugs, potassium permanganate and vinegar are added.It is manganese that causes a special type of cationic encephalopathy, a serious complication of this type of dependence.Table of contents: General information Mechanism of narcotic effects What effects causes cathinone, the ways of using the substance? Syndrome of withdrawal? Formation of mental and physical dependence. Overdose Complications of long-term abuse of cathinon. Treatment of cathinon abuse.
. General information.
Kata is a historical and ancient plant species,Which was used by the inhabitants of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula for millennia.Currently, about 20 million representatives of these regions still "chew" it to improve mood and improve physical well-being.Especially the kata technique is popular in the 2 nd half of the day, when a person accumulates fatigue and a sense of hunger, this plant eliminates them with great success.Kata in these countries is not prohibited.So you can often see the leaves of kata drivers, teachers, doctors and other professions, on which people depend.The habit of using kata has spread to other countries, with stricter laws in relation to this psychoactive substance.
Against the backdrop of the action of the cathinone, the person's mood rises, he feels a surge of strength and energy.The constant use of this drug causes dependence, requires a constant increase in the dose.
Note: the most severe toxic effect is on the brain.The patient develops a toxic variant of encephalopathy.
Mechanism of drug effects
Catinon changes the normal metabolism and functionality of neural mediators - dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, serotonin .The cathinone is included in the chain of transmission of nerve impulses and promotes their activation.This is the main stimulating effect on the central nervous system.The cathinone has an effect on the peripheral nervous system.
What effects causes cathinone, how to use
Catinon is administered at a usual dose of about 200 mg, injectively.Take it through the nose( intranasally), through the mouth( orally).
The classic way to receive kata is to roll the plant "into the ball", put it on the cheeks and chew .In this case, the juice of the leaves is released, cathinone enters the body from it.Suction occurs through the mucous membrane of the cheek, stomach and small intestine.
"Parish" from the intravenous mode of administration is very abundant in strength and variety of sensations - "blow to the head".One-time action lasts about 4 - 5 hours.The peak of action occurs 1.5 to 2 hours after the start of the application.
The patient experiences:
- a pronounced sense of joy - euphoria with talkativeness;
- excessive physical and mental activity;
- desire to communicate with people and actively participate in all topics of conversation;
- an excessive need to philosophize, philosophize;
- pleasant tingling in the skin;
- increased libido and sexual arousal;
- suppressing the desire to eat;
- increased blood pressure, increased heart rate and respiration;
- relaxation of smooth muscles of organs;
- pronounced dryness of the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose;
- visual impairment - double vision, fuzzy vision of the surrounding world.
Note: the desire to repeat the received sensation becomes the beginning of the development of mental and some physical dependence.
Syndrome of cancellation
Very soon, with regular application of cationic, the patient develops withdrawal syndrome with elements of withdrawal symptoms.
It manifests itself:
- pronounced lethargy, apathy, depression;
- headache and dramatically reduced background mood;
- by increased irritability;
- partial, or complete loss of appetite;
- with insomnia;
- expressed desire to take a dose that takes all the patient's attention.
Formation of mental and physical dependence
Some drug experts deny the development of physical dependence on the abuse of cathinone.But mental traction is present in all patients.
After the end of the drug( intoxication), the person taking it in a very short time begins to form a severe discomfort with the already described above withdrawal symptoms.The strength of these unpleasant sensations increases with the experience of consuming cathinon.
A painful condition causes patients to increase the dose and multiplicity of drug use.A heavy dependence is formed.
With the injection form, the number of administrations increases from 1 to 2 times to 3 to 8 times a day.Individual individuals have a multiplicity of drug intake of 25 per day.
Important: the craving for cathinon is so strong that any independent attempts to escape dependence without treatment are almost unsuccessful.
In very rare cases, patients manage to do this on their own, and even then, at the initial stages of the disease.
Periodic consumption of the substance very quickly grows into a systematic, also due to a rather weak narcotic effect.This also causes a rapid dose build-up and multiplicity of administration.
It should be noted that the price of the drug is quite low.On this basis, consumers of cathinon often become poor and antisocial people who lack motivation for a healthy lifestyle.They prefer to live today, under "high", without thinking about the consequences and the future.
Excessive acquisition of a narcotic substance can be accompanied by a rapid development of decompensation.In mild cases, the patients develop impaired perception of .These episodes take place on their own within 3-4 hours.In more serious cases, blood pressure drops, consciousness on the background of illusions and hallucinations quickly fades, there comes a stop of cardiac activity.The condition requires immediate resuscitation.
Complications of prolonged abuse of cathinone
Regular injection of increasing doses of the substance leads to a malignant variant of toxic encephalopathy .The initial manifestations of this pathology can be cleaned for the first time with a new addition of the next dose.But the disease is progressing.Contained in artisanal preparation potassium permanganate becomes the reason of aggravation of neurological disorders which are shown in some months of a regular narcosis.
The patient develops pathological problems associated with:
- with gait disturbance( staggering), sudden change in the rhythm of walking, difficulty stopping and discoordination;
- with speech problems - fuzzy pronunciation and incantation.The voice becomes inexpressive and quiet;
- gradual progression of severe motor disorders( difficulty in any kind of movement);
- with the trembling of fingers;
- depletion of movements of facial muscles( masklike face);
At the initial examination, the appearance of the patients leaves an impression of their mental inferiority.But the feature of manganese encephalopathy is precisely in a minor damage to intellectual capabilities, while maintaining a critical attitude towards oneself. From the clinical point of view, this type of complication resembles Parkinson's disease.
When examining the extremities of cathinine injecting drug addicts, attention is drawn to the "road" - the specific mark of injections of the drug.Drug addicts have to inject the substance into the femoral and axillary veins.It is in these places that attention is paid to cicatricial changes, which were called "mines".
The presence of injection traces helps the doctor during the initial diagnosis to distinguish between cathinine dependence on Parkinson's disease. Absence of withdrawal symptoms makes it possible to differentiate addiction to cathinone from opioid addiction.
Please note: as a result of developing ailment the patient becomes disabled.
Treatment of cathinone abuse
Overdose requires enhanced detoxification intensive therapy( Glucose, Reosorbilact, Reamberin) in the toxicology department.
Dependence therapy is performed on an outpatient basis, or permanently in specialized drug treatment units. Absence of a clearly expressed abstinence syndrome allows you to immediately concentrate efforts to cure dependence on psychotherapy.
The use of methods of suggestion, persuasion, hypnosis, rational therapy, cognitive and behavioral psychotherapy can remove mental dependence and formulate attitudes towards a healthy lifestyle.
In the presence of encephalopathy, patients are prescribed:
- sulfur-containing preparations for elimination of toxins( unitiol, thiosulphate);
- nootropics( piracetam, nootropil).These medications are recommended for a long time and in high doses.Only with this scheme one can partially have a positive impact on the affected brain;
- medications that improve cerebral circulation( cinnarizine, Cavinton);
- tranquilizers, for the stabilization of the psyche;
- sleeping pills, with the goal of normalizing sleep;
- anticonvulsant, with paroxysmal seizures;
- vitamin complex;
- physiotherapy( exercise therapy, water procedures, therapeutic mud).
Despite the active therapy to cure such patients is not possible.All that can be achieved is some improvement in their condition, and slowing the progress of the disease.
The prognosis for the abuse of cathinone is unfavorable.Patients often become disabled, even with adequate therapy.
Alexander Lotin, medical reviewer