Colitis - symptoms, classification, causes and treatment
Colitis( inflammatory process of the mucosa of the large intestine) is, according to statistics, the most popular disease of the gastrointestinal tract.Many patients take colitis for intestinal colitis, but there is nothing common between these two concepts.Intestinal colic is an intense pain attack, characterized by a short-term course.Intestinal colic is not an independent disease, but a symptom of many pathologies of the entire gastrointestinal tract.Kolit is a completely independent pathology, which manifests itself in certain symptoms and develops against the background of infection.Table of contents:
Classification of colitis
The classification of the disease in question can be called complex - the doctors distinguish certain forms and specific types of colitis.
Most often it is with this colitis that patients are referred for help to a doctor.Characterized by acute colitis sudden appearance of characteristic symptoms, with time they build up.It is noteworthy that with this form of the disease, certain symptoms do not subside even after taking medications with spasmolytic action.If a patient with a severe form of colitis has not been provided with timely medical assistance, the symptoms will gradually become less noticeable, and subsequently "go away".But this does not mean a recovery - just colitis has acquired a chronic form of flow.
Always develops as a consequence of ignoring the symptoms of acute colitis, but doctors believe that the cause of chronic colitis is an incorrect / unbalanced diet.Most often, this form of the disease is diagnosed in people aged 25-40 years.A distinctive feature of chronic colitis is frequent relapses, during which all symptoms manifest themselves very clearly, but even during periods of remission, low-intensity manifestations will be present.
Ulcerative colitisRecommended to read:
Characterized by the appearance on the background of the inflammatory process on the mucosa of the large intestine ulcerated areas. The doctors call the reasons for the development of this type of disease:
- Genetic factor - there is an assumption that the body "crashes" the immune system, when the cells of the body begin to produce antibodies that "devour" the intestinal epithelium.
- An hereditary factor - the theory that the ulcerative form of colitis is inherited, has a place to be.Moreover, she even has evidence at the scientific level.
- Infectious factor - ulcerative colitis can develop against the background of infection or the entry into the body of pathogenic bacteria.However, until now a specific strain of bacteria has not been identified.
The considered form of colitis does not arise by itself and suddenly - it must necessarily be some kind of push.For example, the appearance of symptoms of ulcerative colitis and its progression can provoke a sedentary lifestyle, impaired nutrition( namely, the lack of vegetables and fruits on the menu), dysbiosis.Note: ulcerative colitis can occur in three stages, the most dangerous is the third / severe.It is during such a course of the disease that intestinal perforation( rupture) can occur - this leads to sepsis, peritonitis, and in the absence of emergency measures such a condition can quickly lead to the patient's death.
Spastic form of colitis
A distinctive feature of this type of the disease under consideration is the appearance of pathology against the background of a significantly reduced work of the intestine, weak peristalsis.Most often, doctors refer spastic colitis to the category of "bowel function disorder".The main symptom in this form of colitis is considered stable, chronic constipation - to empty the intestine and resume its normal work can not even with the use of drugs with laxative effect.When examining a patient with ultrasound, the doctor will necessarily find spasms of the large intestine - on the background of the overall picture they will be significantly narrowed.Note: if the spastic colitis progresses long ago, then not only the swelling of the large intestine may appear, but also the dryness of its walls.And this, in turn, provokes the formation of cracks - they can be mistaken for ulcerative colitis.Therefore, the doctor should conduct not only finger and ultrasound examination of the intestine, but also rectoscopy.
Catarrhal form of colitis
This type of the disease under consideration can not be called a separate disease - catarrhal colitis, most likely, is a specific stage in the development of pathology.It can be diagnosed only at the onset of disease progression, proceeds swiftly for 2, maximum 3, days and has pronounced symptoms.This type of colitis is very easy to diagnose - it is characterized by certain symptoms that allow you to do without a complex instrumental examination of the patient.But a doctor's visit should be mandatory - if you do not diagnose catarrhal colitis in time and start an adequate treatment, he can go into an ulcerative form.Note: catarrhal colitis can develop and not as a disease, but be just a manifestation of food poisoning or alcohol intoxication.In this case, correctly conducted therapy will completely heal the patient without transition to the chronic form of colitis.
Atrophic form of colitis
Atrophic colitis usually accompanies the spastic form of the same disease and appears in the late stages of its development.Due to too long a stagnant process( recall - the main symptom of spastic colitis is chronic / persistent constipation) there is an atrophy of the smooth muscles of the intestine.Over time, if there is no professional treatment, atrophic colitis turns into ulcerative, the number of pathogenic microorganisms in the intestine does not decrease and this leads to severe consequences - intestinal wall perforation and sepsis or peritonitis.Note: all of the above types and forms of the disease in question is inherent in both the thin and large intestine.And only atrophic colitis is located exclusively in the large intestine.
Erosive colitis is not classified by all specialists as an independent disease, a specific type of colitis - they believe that this is just the initial stage of ulcerative colitis.The most important difference between the erosive form and the ulcerative one is that pathological changes in the mucosa and epithelium of the intestinal walls are not so pronounced, easily diagnosed and never lead to perforation.The peculiarity of erosive colitis lies in the fact that, for all standard symptoms of the disease under consideration, patients always make complaints and stomach pain.An inexperienced doctor may suspect the development of gastritis - this will entail the appointment at the root of the wrong treatment.
This is perhaps the most severe form of the disease under consideration - it affects both parts of the intestine( both thin and thick), so the symptoms will be unusually bright from the first hours of the pathology development.Complaints of the patient can direct the doctor on a false way in diagnostics - they can testify about simultaneous development of a gastritis and an enteritis.And nevertheless, with due medical experience, it is possible to diagnose diffuse colitis with minimal examinations. Note: in some cases, a patient on day 2-3 of the disease may complain of acute pain in the right upper quadrant or in the lower abdomen.In this case, the doctor must differentiate the disease and exclude acute appendicitis.
Causes of colitis development
The true causes of the disease under consideration have not been identified so far, despite the possibilities of modern medicine.And yet, doctors identify several factors that are likely to lead to the development of different types / forms of colitis. These include:
- Power failure.These are the so-called nutritional reasons - the constant use of fast foods, food "dry", insufficient number of vegetables and fruits on the menu, the abuse of alcoholic beverages, the exclusion of meat or fish.
- Medication administration.In this case, colitis can develop against a background of long-term medication - they negatively affect the intestinal microflora.The most "dangerous" in this respect medicines are antibacterial drugs( antibiotics), aminoglycoside and anti-inflammatory drugs, some oral contraceptives.
- Infectious diseases.It's no secret that people often eat poor-quality products - they get pathogens into the body.Or, earlier, the patient was diagnosed with dysentery - in this case, too, there is a danger of developing colitis, as under the influence of pathogenic bacteria, irritation of the intestinal walls occurs.But whatever infection is diagnosed, colitis in any case will not be an infectious disease.
- Presence of other pathologies in the body.This concerns, in the main, the organs of the gastrointestinal tract - for example, cirrhosis of the liver, hepatitis( inflammation of the liver), gastritis( inflammation of the gastric mucosa), peptic ulcer of the stomach / duodenum and so on.
- Toxic poisoning.
- Allergic reaction.
- Mechanical effects.Here we are talking about excessive enthusiasm for enemas and candles - it acts irritatingly on the walls of the large intestine, negatively affects the composition of the microflora and provokes the development of colitis.
Symptoms of colitis
Symptoms of acute and chronic colitis differ from each other from the first day of the disease.There are some peculiarities in the clinical picture and some types of the considered disease, therefore it is necessary to be guided in such a variety.
- Abdominal pain, discomfort.This sign can have a weak intensity, but it always increases with fast walking, after eating, immediately after cleansing enemas.
- Diarrhea( diarrhea).It can hardly be called the main sign of the development of acute colitis - diarrhea can also indicate other pathologies in the digestive system.But diarrhea differs in the disease under consideration, the presence of green veins and impurities in the feces.
- False urination in the toilet.It is noteworthy that if acute colitis is localized in the large intestine, then false urges for defecation will be noted in the daytime.But with the progression of the inflammatory process in the direct or, for example, sigmoid colon, desires will be predominantly at night, they are more painful and end with the release of a small amount of solid feces.
- Heaviness in the abdomen, bloating and flatulence.
- Increased gas formation even without the use of specific products.
- Constipation.They will have a spastic character, it will be difficult to flow.
- Loud rumbling in the abdomen, occurring 40-60 minutes after eating.
- Severe pain in the lower abdomen.Arise after physical exertion or disorders in the psycho-emotional plane( for example, the transferred stress).
- Rash on the skin.This is a consequence of toxic poisoning of the body due to stagnation of feces in the intestine.
- Headaches.A general weakness is possible.
Note: listed symptoms appear in both remission and periods of exacerbation of chronic colitis.Only in the second case they will be more pronounced.
- Diarrhea( diarrhea).The urge to defecate too often( up to 15 per day), a small amount of liquid feces is released from the intestine.
- Elemental constipation.They arise only in the case of spreading of the considered disease of the ulcerative species in the department of the small intestine.
- Intoxication of the body.Patients complain of the usual symptoms of acute respiratory-viral infections - nausea, headache, slight fever, drowsiness, lacrimation.
- Presence of impurities in the stool.Ulcerative colitis is characterized by the presence in the stool of greenish veins, traces of blood.Moreover, at the beginning of the disease, blood can be seen only on toilet paper, but with progression this impurity can be seen with the naked eye and in feces.
Diagnosis of colitis
Doctors diagnose the disease in question using a variety of methods - from a banal patient interview to an instrumental examination of the intestine. As part of the diagnosis of colitis, doctors use the following examinations / examinations:
- Laboratory methods:
- general blood test - high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, increased white blood cell count;
- coprogram( feces analysis) - in the biomaterial, red blood cells, leukocytes and blood admixture will be detected;
- stool cultures - detect or deny infectious or bacterial agents;
- PCR diagnostics - doctors will be able to detect the presence of parasites( helminths) and viral lesions of the large / small intestine.
- Instrumental methods:
- Irrigoscopy - performed using contrast medium, the physician determines the functional changes in the intestines, ascertain the number of sites of constriction and their degree;
- ultrasound - the doctor determines the presence and size of the intestinal lumen;
- fibroeolacolonoscopy - with the help of an endoscope, a specialist can determine the exact localization of the inflammatory process, in the course of such an examination, a tissue fragment of the intestine with pathological changes is taken for histological examination( detection of malignant cells);
- magnetic resonance imaging.
Treatment of colitis
To get rid of colitis, the patient should not only undergo medical treatment, but also adhere to a strict diet - this will help a dietitian and a gastroenterologist.
Antibiotics( antibacterials) - are given if the bacterium / infection / viruses are the cause of the development of the considered disease.Most often in colitis, doctors prescribe Cyphran, Enterofuril and Rifaximin. Anthelmintic agents - it is advisable to take only when revealing the presence of parasites in the intestine.Pain Relief .They are appointed if the patient complains of an intense pain syndrome.It is appropriate to take No-shpa, Papaverin and other antispasmodic drugs. Means for the normalization of the chair.If the patient suffers from diarrhea, it is advisable to take any astringents for it - it may be a decoction of oak bark, tanalbine, white clay.In case of constipation, a cleansing enema is put to the patient, along with prescription drugs with laxative effect. Probiotics .They are needed to normalize / restore the intestinal microflora - under the influence of drugs, after cleansing enemas all the beneficial bacteria are "washed out".The most popular drug among the known probiotics is Linex. Note: against the background of this disease can be diagnosed with concomitant diseases - for example, sigmoiditis, anal fissures and others.It is necessary to undergo a course of therapy for these pathologies.
Diet for colitis
To treat the disease in question, it is important for patients to reconsider their diet - some products must be completely excluded from the diet, and some, on the contrary, introduced. Remember that you need to enter the daily menu for colitis:
- In the acute phase of the progression of the inflammatory process under consideration, it is necessary to drink astringent beverages - coffee, black tea, kissels, berry compotes.Blueberry, black currant and bird cherry have the necessary effect - they can be used not only in the form of compotes, but also in fresh form.
- You can even consume vegetables, but only in the form of puree - in another form, cellulose can have an irritating effect on the inflamed intestinal walls.Calming cauliflower has a calming effect on the intestines - it must be present in the patient's menu with a diagnosis of colitis.
- It will be appropriate to regularly eat pears, apples, peaches.But remember - they should also be in the form of mashed potatoes!Porridge and soups.They are prepared exclusively on the water - during the treatment of colitis you need to minimize the load on the gastrointestinal tract.That's why you should not cook these dishes on meat broths and use roast in cooking.
- From dairy products in the acute phase you can eat only cottage cheese, milk and cheeses - always low-fat!
- Meat and fish.They can not be excluded from the menu, because this will lead to a violation of the balance of nutrients in the body - this will provoke a more severe course of the disease in question.Of these products, you need to make minced meat and cook it with steam cutlets and meatballs with the addition of pearl barley.
- From the offal, you can enter the menu of chicken liver, but not in fried form, but only cooked.For a variety of food, pates are made from it.
- Bakery products can only be consumed a day ago and cooked on flour from durum wheat.
- Candy can be, but only in small quantities - no more than 1 chocolate or 2 caramel.Sugar per day should not be more than 2 teaspoons.
Categorically can not be eaten with colitis:
- Sour-milk products.Sour cream, whole milk, fermented milk and other products - they can not be consumed, even if they have a low level of fat content.
- Baking, baking and fresh bread.These products improve the process of gassing, provoke the improvement of peristalsis - it acts aggressively on the inflamed intestinal walls and worsens the patient's condition.Preservation, Pickles.
- .We are talking about any kind of conservation - from home marinades to canned food of industrial production.
- Many fruits and vegetables are raw.Completely abandon them is only because the fiber contained in these products will provoke active work of the intestine, increase gas formation, will cause flatulence.Macaroni and all the legumes.
- .They overload the intestine, give it an extra load.
Naturally, you need to abandon fast food, fried potatoes, sausages and any sausages, seasonings and spices, chicken eggs, mayonnaise and sauces.
Treatment of colitis with folk remedies
A very controversial question - is it worth to trust folk recipes in the treatment of colitis.The only thing about which doctors literally "shout" - colitis should be treated only under the supervision of medical workers!No, even the most proven, funds from the category of traditional medicine will not help to remove inflammation and restore the intestinal microflora.And if we assume that the disease under consideration arose on the background of an infection or if there are parasites in the body, then no herbs will help accurately.But do not reduce the possibilities of traditional medicine - some of its recipes will help to cope with colitis in the stage of remission( in the chronic course of the disease) or in the initial stage of its development. Such recipes include:
- Honey and water are mixed in a glass in the proportion of a tablespoon of honey and 200 ml of warm boiled water.Such a "sweet water" you need to drink 1/3 cup 3 times a day.Duration of use - not less than 45 days.
- Half a teaspoon of Perga three times a day - it needs to be eaten, washed down with a small amount of warm water, before eating.Duration of use - 30 days.
- Mix 1 tablespoon of honey and 200 ml of apple juice.Drink half the glass twice a day.Duration of admission is 30 days.
Note: if doctors diagnosed, except for colitis, gastritis and / or peptic ulcer, then apple juice is categorically contraindicated.
- 3 tablespoons of dried flowers of chemist's chamomile to pour 700 ml of boiling water and to insist for 4-6 hours.Then, 100 g of honey is added to the resulting infusion.The drug is taken 150 ml 3-4 times a day.Duration of treatment is 45 days.
- 2 tablespoons dried St. John's wort pour 500 ml of boiling water and boil the preparation with a small boil for 15 minutes.Infuse the broth for at least 2 hours, then strain and take 1/3 cup three times a day for half an hour before meals.Duration of treatment is 30 days.
- 3 tablespoons of leaves( or fruits) of blueberries pour 600 ml of steep boiling water, to insist 10 hours.Then strain and take 200 ml three times a day.
Any folk remedies that are taken with colitis should be prepared from raw materials purchased from pharmacies.Do not forget to get permission for such therapy from the attending physician, and do not "discount" the possibility of an allergic reaction.Colitis is a disease that can begin with an innocent constipation and pain in the intestines, and end with a perforation of the intestinal wall, sepsis or peritonitis.Only the timely provision of medical care will guarantee a safe forecast. Yana Tsygankova, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category.