Symptoms of facial nerve inflammation and methods of treatment
Inflammation of the facial nerve in medicine is classified as neuritis - a disease that occurs in people of both sexes, regardless of age and type of work activity.Inflammation of the facial nerve is a rather unpleasant pathology, which not only needs to be diagnosed in time, but also properly treated to avoid complications.Table of contents: Causes and types of facial nerve inflammation Symptoms of facial nerve inflammation Treatment of facial nerve inflammation
Causes and types of facial nasal inflammation
It is impossible to single out one specific cause of the pathological condition under consideration, but it is quite possible to list provoking factors.And the main of them is considered to be hypothermia - for example, riding in transport near an open window, sleeping in a draft, a long stay immediately under running air conditioning and so on. But besides this, the inflammatory process can trigger:
- atherosclerosis of vertebral arteries and other vascular disorders;
- various infectious diseases - for example, measles, mumps, herpes and others;
- anesthesia of the lower alveolar nerve, which is performed by dentists;
- craniocerebral trauma of varying severity;
- Inflammatory diseases of the brain, ear and / or facial sinuses;
- neoplasms of a benign or malignant nature localized in the brain.
Due to a variety of provoking factors, doctors conditionally classify the disease under consideration into two types:
- primary neuritis - occurs as a consequence of hypothermia, but organic changes in the brain area are absent;
- secondary neuritis of the facial nerve - progresses against the background of existing pathologies of ENT organs and brain diseases.
Symptoms of facial nerve inflammation
Most often, doctors diagnose unilateral inflammation of the facial nerve, but 2% of all cases of detection of the disease in question occur in bilateral inflammation.Depending on how much the inflammatory process progresses, the clinical picture of the disease will also depend. Doctors distinguish only a few of the most common symptoms of neuritis of the facial nerve:
- pain syndrome and simultaneous loss of sensitivity( full or partial) in the ear and mastoid region;
- partial or complete disruption of movements of facial muscles from the side of the nerve affected by the inflammatory process - the patient can not fully smile( one edge of the mouth remains motionless), show teeth, pull out the lips with a tube;
- hearing loss - a person will note either a decrease in hearing, or an increase in his acuity;
- a taste disorder;
- abundant lacrimation or, conversely, complete absence of tears;
- increase or decrease of salivation;
- violation of the oculomotor function - the patient can not look away.
It is not necessary at all for the indicated disease, all these symptoms are present at once, most often only 1-3 strongly pronounced signs of are noted.But even this is enough for a competent diagnosis - the inflammation of the facial nerve does not need to be clarified by some complicated research.The doctor can assign a computer tomography or MRI to the patient to confirm the diagnosis of "secondary neuritis" and to detect organic brain damage.
Treatment of facial nerve inflammation
It is very important to start therapy quickly, because this is the only way to avoid complications. In the acute period of the current illness, doctors appoint:
- Glucocorticosteroid hormones or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.These drugs can stop the progression of the inflammatory process, such as Meloxicam, Prednisolone, Piroxicam and Nimesulide.
- Diuretics Furosemide and Torasemide.They can reduce swelling, which brings considerable relief to the patient.
- Vasodilator Eufillin.In the affected area, it is necessary to improve blood flow, which occurs when the patient enters the patient's body of the drug.
- Vitamins of group B. They not only help to strengthen the immune system of the body and accelerate the healing process, but also improve the metabolic processes in the nervous tissue.
If doctors diagnose a secondary form of neuritis that develops against a background of any disease( infectious or viral), then first you need to complete the treatment of the main pathology, and then take measures to restore the functions of the facial nerve .In some cases, despite timely treatment, there is too slow recovery of motor muscle functions - it is appropriate to appoint a patient Nerobol( a drug with a metabolic effect) and Galantamine or Proserin( anticholinesterase drugs).
In the treatment of inflammation of the facial nerve, physiotherapy plays a big role - the procedures are prescribed several days after the beginning of treatment for the acute form of neuritis. And, the appointment of certain physiotherapy procedures should be strictly step-by-step:
- first - Minin and Solux lamp for warming up the affected part of the face;
- a little later - ultrasound with hydrocortisone, paraffinotherapy, applications with ozocerite and acupuncture;
- after the second week of illness - massage of mimic muscles and physiotherapy exercises.
Please note : if the muscle functions of the affected part of the face are not restored within 10 months, doctors will be asked to perform surgical treatment.For example, specialists often recommend in this case to do autotransplantation.
Forecast of facial nerve inflammation favorable - complete recovery and restoration of muscular function is noted in 75% of patients.But if such a dysfunction persists for 3 months or more, the chances of recovery in the patient fall sharply.If the disease in question is associated with a trauma or pathology of the hearing organ, then full recovery may not occur at all.But as regards recurrent neuritis, every new episode is more severe than the previous one, and the recovery period is lengthening each time.
Of course, there are certain preventive measures to prevent the development of inflammation of the facial nerve.Doctors recommend avoiding hypothermia, traumas of the head area and conducting a full / adequate treatment of concomitant diseases.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category