Benign tumors of the nasal cavity
Mar 23, 2018
The appearance of benign tumors is possible in the most diverse organs of the human body.They arise from all types of tissue: connective, muscular, epithelial, fatty, etc.
The nasal cavity is also susceptible to the development of tumors, due to which the person has complicated nasal breathing, impaired sense of smell, foreign object sensation, severe headache and mucous-Purulent discharge from the nose.
A distinctive feature of benign tumors is the absence of metastasis and ulceration of the latter, which greatly facilitates the treatment of the disease.Table of contents: Classification of tumors of the nasal cavity Factors of occurrence Clinical manifestations of different types of tumors
Classification of nasal cavity tumors
There are several classifications of benign tumors of the nasal cavity.
The most common types of tumoral formation are:
- papilloma is a skin tumor that appears on the walls and on the eve of the nose;
- angioma - tumors of blood and lymphatic vessels;
- bleeding polyp - appears in the anterior part of the septum of the nose, slightly bleeds;
- chondroma - develops from hyaline cartilage;
- osteoma - a tumor of bone tissue, is rare;
- fibroma is a connective tissue tumor that forms on the nasal mucosa;
- adenoma - occurs in any organ in the structure of which the glandular epithelium participates;
- lipoma - a tumor of adipose tissue( popular name - zhirovik).
Children are often diagnosed with congenital tumors due to impaired differentiation of embryonic cells.
In adults, the causes of nasal tumors often are environmental hazards that have a lasting effect on this part of the respiratory system. These can be professional features( work in smoky and dusty rooms, inhaling harmful substances in workers in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries), and frequent injuries of the nasopharynx.
Endogenous causes include chronic infectious diseases: rhinitis, sinusitis, adenoids and allergic diseases - pollinosis, rhinitis of allergic nature.
Clinical manifestations of different types of tumors
In the latent stage, the disease does not cause any appreciable inconveniences, and the patient does not think about visiting a polyclinic.Despite this, the tumor continues to grow and eventually begins to manifest itself. The first complaints are related to the complication of nasal breathing and the violation of smell, there are headaches and nosebleeds.Further development of symptoms depends on the tissue origin of the tumor.
A typical papilloma is a relatively small neoplasm of gray or gray-pink color.It has a tuberous structure, is located on the stem in the region of the septum of the nose or on the lower shells.It can be characterized as a single or multiple growth.
The papilloma of the transitional cell structure sometimes migrates to a number of disposed tissues and has a wider base than the typical papilloma.In appearance, it is similar to the inflorescence of cauliflower.Its main danger is the ability to malign( malignant) and recur after surgical treatment.
The main symptom of this tumor is frequent nasal bleeding for no apparent reason.
Characteristic of sprouting into the orbit and paranasal sinuses.To determine the size of the tumor, a study of carotid arteries is recommended.
The clinic of this tumor has a general picture - nasal congestion, sensation of the presence of a foreign body, occasionally there are nosebleeds.A bad symptom is lacrimation, impaired vision.These manifestations signal the spread of the tumor from the nasal cavity to the orbit.
The tumor is formed from the cartilaginous tissue, therefore, the localization of the neoplasm is the septum of the nose, its wings and sinuses.It differs by slow growth and gradual squeezing of contacting tissues.Absence of treatment is fraught with germination in the cranial and orbital areas.
This kind of benign tumors of the nasal cavity most often develops in the frontal and maxillary sinuses and greatly complicates nasal breathing.The patient has soreness of the sinuses of the same name on his face, the discharge from the nose has a purulent-mucous character, there is increased lacrimation.
Complications of the disease
Tumors of the vascular tissue and bleeding polyp septum are a constant source of nosebleeds.Osteomas and chondromas can disrupt the integrity of the walls of the nose, resulting in the deformation of the face .Because of the spread of any benign tumors to the eye area, the blood vessels are squeezed and there is such a formidable complication as a blurred vision.
Diagnosis of benign nasal tumors
Only the ENT doctor can diagnose a "benign tumor of the nasal cavity". In doing so, it relies on the data of a survey and examination of the patient.
As additional methods may be employed:
- consultation by an ophthalmologist,
- diagnosis of disorders of olfaction,
- bacteriological smears from the pharynx, the nasal cavity,
- radiologicalExamination of the sinuses of the nose and skull,
- computed tomography.
Treatment of pathological formations
In view of the significant risks accompanying this disease, operative intervention is considered to be the optimal method of complete cure. To it resort, if there are no direct contraindications( IHD, extreme stages of GB, diabetes, cirrhosis, etc.).
The size of the tumor and its appearance directly affects the choice of the method of removal.
Please note: can only make a decision and treat only a certified specialist!The use of alternative medicine is fraught with complications!
Endoscopic removal of benign tumors of the nasal cavity is an innovative technique that allows you to see the progress of the operation on a special monitor.
Thanks to the use of such precision instruments as a debridge or shaver, it is possible to minimize injuries of healthy tissues, reduce bleeding and shorten the recovery period after surgery.Most often this tool removes polyps.
Removal of tumors by exposure to high and low temperatures.
It is performed by means of an electrocoagulating loop or cryotherapy.To avoid recurrence, a small formation is removed with adjacent tissues.Thus, papillomas, small fibromas are removed.
Traditional surgical procedure
Carried out with a scalpel.Now this method is used only when it is necessary to remove tumors of the nose of large sizes.The operation is very traumatic, characterized by a longer period of healing and the risk of postoperative complications.
Laser and radio wave removal of tumors
These techniques involve exposure to a benign tumor of the nasal cavity with a laser or a radio knife .These are ultra-precise contactless technologies, which make it possible to significantly shorten the rehabilitation period and to do without scars.And if the laser method is very painful and requires anesthesia, then removal with a radio-knife takes place in a comfortable environment.
Dissection of bony structures
It is used infrequently, only in the case of large osteomas and chondrules.This type of tumors is sometimes removed in parts, which requires dissection of not only bone structures, but also facial tissues.Correction of postoperative deformations occurs with the help of plastic surgery.
How to suspect a child's nose tumor
At the onset of the disease, there are no alarming symptoms.
Call your doctor if your child:
- persistent shortness of breath;
- prolonged purulent runny nose;
- frequent nasal bleeding;
- headache and fatigue in combination with other symptoms.
Important: do not attempt to remove the neoplasm on your own, even if you are sure that this is not a tumor!
Natalia Tavaluk, medical observer of