Medicamentous treatment of fungal diseases of the skin

Dermatomycosis is a fungal skin infection that occurs quite often and includes a large number of different skin diseases. As a rule, the diagnosis of fungal skin disease is confirmed by the results of inoculation. The diagnosis can also be confirmed by the identification of fungi in a preparation treated with a ten percent solution of potassium hydroxide. Only after confirming the diagnosis and determining the pathogens of the disease, the doctor can prescribe medication for fungal skin diseases.

Polyenes

Polyenes are natural antimycotics. Polyenes include levorin, nmatin, natamycin, which are administered orally and topically. Amphotericin B is used to treat extremely severe systemic mycoses. One of the modern medicines of this polyene with improved tolerance is liposomal amphotericin B. It is produced by forming an amphotericin B capsule in the liposomes( liposomes - fat bubbles that are formed in the water of phospholipids during dispersion), which allows the active substances to be released in direct contact with the fungal cells.

Mechanism of action

Polyenes have a fungistatic or fungicidal action( dependent on concentration) caused by the compound of the drug with ergosterol of the fungal membrane, as a result of its integrity is destroyed, the contents of the cytoplasm are lost and cells die.

Azoles

Azoles are a representative group of synthetic antimycotics containing drugs for the systemic( fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole) and local( isoconazole, clotrimazole, bifonazole, miconazole, econazole, oxyconazole) applications. It should be noted that the "systemic" azole-ketoconazole, after it was introduced into clinical practice and itraconazole, because of its high toxicity, has almost lost its significance, and therefore it has recently been used only locally.

Mechanism of action

Azoles have a fungistatic effect, which is associated with a delay in cytochrome P-450-dependent 14α-demethylase, and which accelerates the metamorphosis of lanosterol into ergosterol, the main structural component of the fungal membrane.

When forming high local concentrations, local preparations against most fungi are destructive.

Allylamines

Allylamines are synthetic antimycotics, including terbinafine and naphthyfine. The first is applied topically and inward, the second is for topical use only. Alylamines are prescribed for the treatment of fungal diseases of the skin( dermatomycosis).

Mechanism of action

Allylamines have a fungicidal effect due to a failure of ergosterol synthesis. Allylamines block the earliest stages of biosynthesis, suppressing the enzyme squalene epoxidase.

Drug treatment with other groups of drugs

Griseofulvin

Griseofulvin is a natural antifungal agent that has a narrow spectrum of activity. It is produced by the fungus of the genus Penicillium. This drug is prescribed for dermatomycosis, which was caused by fungi-dermatomycetes.

Mechanism of action

Griseofulvin has a fungistatic effect due to the suppression of mitotic activity of fungal cells in metaphase, disruption of DNA synthesis. Griseofulvin selectively accumulates in the "prokeratin" cells of nails, hair, skin, thanks to which the newly formed keratin is resistant to fungal damage. After the infected keratin is completely replaced( a fairly slow process), there will be a cure.

Potassium iodide

Potassium iodide as an antifungal agent is administered orally( concentrated solution 1.0 g / ml).The present mechanism of exposure is not known exactly.

Amorolfin

Amorolfin is a synthetic antifungal agent for topical use, is a morpholine derivative. It is used as a nail polish.

Mechanism of action

Amorolfin has a fungistatic and fungicidal action( dependent on concentration), which is caused by a violation of the structure of the cell membrane of fungi.

Cyclopyrox

Synthetic antimycotic for topical application, which has a wide range of activities. At present, no mechanism is known about the effect.