Immunological infertility: causes of development in men and women, diagnosis and treatment methods
The immune system protects the human body from harmful viruses and bacteria.However, increased activity or failure in work can lead to serious problems with fertilization.This pathology is called immunological infertility.They suffer from both men and women.Contents: The concept of immune infertility Causes of pathology in men Causes of immunological infertility in women Diagnosis of pathology Treatment of immunological infertility
The concept of immune infertility
Spermatozoa are affected by antibodies.In men, they are produced in blood and seminal fluid, where spermatogenesis is disturbed and the motility of spermatozoa decreases.
In the female body, antibodies are formed in the cervical channel, or enter its environment with blood.They also immobilize spermatozoa, so the egg is not fertilized.
Fertilization problems in a married couple, without any somatic and reproductive abnormalities, are called immunological infertility.
Causes of pathology in men
When antigens enter the blood, the body's defense against unknown cells triggers, identifying them as hostile.Antibodies completely or partially immobilize spermatozoa, glue them together, or with cells of the epithelium, macrophages, lumps of mucus, destroyed cells and their fragments.
Causes that may lead to immunological infertility:
- chronic form of prostatitis, epididymitis, orchitis;
- inguinal hernia;
- surgery and trauma to the genito-urinary organs;
- obstruction or agenesis of the vas deferens;
- infections that are sexually transmitted;
- Testicular torsion;
A serious cause is the presence of urogenital infections.The development of antibodies against the infectious agent and normal spermatozoa is facilitated by a cross-reaction.
Causes of immunological infertility in women
Antispermal bodies are found in the female body more often than in men .When their number does not exceed the norm, they eliminate inferior spermatozoa.A serious obstacle to conception is created when their number significantly exceeds the norm.Often own female antibodies are produced because of the ingestion of semen in which antibodies are contained.
Urogenital infections contribute to the production of antisperm antibodies.The principle of the action of female antibodies is the inability of spermatozoa to enter the uterus through the cervical mucus of the cervix.
Immunological infertility can develop in such cases:
- genital endometriosis;
- infections that are sexually transmitted;
- chronic inflammation of the genitourinary system.
With these diseases, the woman's immunity is struggling with sperm, which leads to the development of pathology.
Diagnosis of pathology
Diagnosis is performed using special biological samples to assess the motility of spermatozoa in cervical mucus.
Postcoital test of Shuvarskogo-Guner
The contents of the rear vaginal vault and canal of the cervical department are examined after a couple of hours after coition during ovulation in the middle of the menstrual cycle. If cells perform vibrational movements instead of translational movements, this indicates the presence of antibodies in the mucus of the cervical canal.
A test is considered positive if 10 or more sperm with progressive movements are present.A doubtful test contains less than 10 spermatozoa with active translational movements.In the negative, only those who perform vibrational motions or immobile sperm are contained.
Determines the presence of sperm in the mucus from the cervical channel of a woman during the ovulation period.
Determine the immobilization of spermatozoa in mucus.
Determine the number of spermatozoa coated with semen antigens.Immunological infertility is diagnosed in the presence of more than 50% of active spermatozoa, replenished with antisperm antibodies.The place of antibody localization is estimated.
Test of Shuvarskogo
The test determines the compatibility of the cervical and sperm secretion.Conducted six hours after sexual intercourse.To exclude the error, the spouses stop their sex life one week before the test.In addition, stop taking medications that distort the results of the samples and hormones.
Treatment of immunological infertility
Modern therapies can reduce the appearance of sperm antigens, but it is impossible to completely eliminate their formation.Treatment increases the likelihood of successful fertilization.
Such methods include:
- condom therapy. For six months of treatment, sensitization in the female body decreases;
- immunosuppressive therapy. Small doses of corticosteroids are prescribed.The course of treatment is 2-3 months.A shock dose of drugs is prescribed before ovulation.Course - a week;
- nonspecific desensitization.
Also prescribed antihistamines.The course of treatment includes:
- Tavegil 1 mg - 1 tablet twice a day;
- Zirtek 10 mg - 1 tab.Before supper;
- Loratadine 10 mg - overnight.
Immunostimulants are used.If a woman does not have colpitis and endocervicitis, and a man has urethritis and prostatitis, the husband or donor is injected into the uterus.
Conduct ECO.The first step is to stimulate ovulation.Then for two weeks the woman takes hormonal preparations to stimulate the maturation of several eggs.Recombinant preparations obtained by genetic engineering are used to stimulate ovulation.
Treatment of immunological infertility is carried out in a hospital using artificial intrauterine insemination.The semen is introduced into the uterus without contact with cervical mucus, which contains antisperm antibodies.
Treatment with folk remedies
Important!Folk remedies are used only in combination with conservative methods and only after consulting a specialist.
Traditional medicine recipes:
- take a pinch of red geranium, pour boiling water and insist for 10 minutes.Take men and women throughout the day;
- dilute a teaspoon of an extract of propolis on alcohol and tinctures of calendula in half a liter of warm water.Do syringing for ten days.
Immunological infertility is not a sentence.Modern medicine has methods of treatment that will help you become happy parents.
Radevich Igor Tadeushevich, doctor of sexopathologist-andrologist of the 1st category