Pasteurellosis: Types, Symptoms and Treatment
Pasteurellosis is a fairly rare disease characterized by inflammation of the skin, subcutaneous fat, joints, bones and bone marrow.This disease is caused by specific bacteria, carriers of which are sheep, goats, rabbits, pigs, cows, birds and other animals.In the transmission of the causative agent, cats and dogs play a decisive role in humans, moreover, in symptomatic patients themselves, the symptomatology may be completely absent.
The causative agent of pasteurellosis most often enters the human body as a result of an animal bite or a scratch.In the area of trauma to the skin, a painful compaction develops rapidly, which in medicine is classified as an inflammatory infiltrate.In the absence of treatment, the pathogen spreads through the body with blood flow, which causes the development of inflammatory foci in various organs.Table of contents: Classification of pasteurellosis Symptoms of pasteurellosis Diagnostic measures General principles of treatment of pasteurellosis Possible complications
Classification of pasteurellosis
In medicine, there are three forms of the disease under consideration: pulmonary, skin( soft tissue) and septic.
With the cutaneous form of pasteurellosis, the inflammation in the bite zone develops very quickly, in a few hours it is already possible to diagnose a localized infiltrate.As the infection progresses, bubbles with a cloudy liquid form, they can be opened, after which a scab( crust) will be formed.A distinctive characteristic of the cutaneous form of the disease under consideration: the inflammatory process is strictly localized, the pathogen does not spread throughout the body, and all pathological processes are concentrated at the site of the bite or scratch.The general condition of the patient with the cutaneous form of pasteurellosis does not suffer.
The pulmonary form of the disease under consideration is characterized by a chronic lesion of the lungs and bronchi, that is, inflammation in the bite or scratch zone is accompanied by the development of the inflammatory process in the bronchi, the lungs. These pathologies will manifest themselves:
- with a strong cough with sputum;
- increased body temperature from subfebrile to dangerously high rates;
- with dyspnea;
- with pain in the sternum.
The septic form of pasteurellosis is characterized by the spread of the pathogen throughout the body, the damage of various organs. This form of the disease in question will be characterized by:
- with palpitation;
- with increased sweating;
- with a sharp increase in temperature;
- with severe headaches( foci of inflammation are localized in the brain);
- with an intense cough with sputum( inflammation progresses in the lungs);
- pain in the right upper quadrant( pathological liver damage).
The septic form of pasteurellosis develops rapidly, an animal affected by an animal bite has a loss of consciousness, then the blood pressure decreases and death occurs.
Symptoms of pasteurellosis
Doctors distinguish only a few specific symptoms of the disease in question:
redness, swelling and soreness at the site of penetration of the pathogen into the body;
- formation at the site of a bite or a scratch of blisters that are filled with a turbid liquid;
- increased body temperature, but this symptom may be absent;
- enlargement of lymph nodes - inguinal, axillary and cervical.
Pasteurellosis is diagnosed quite easily, a doctor can suspect this disease even when examining a patient, after listening to his complaints. Naturally, to confirm the diagnosis diagnostic procedures are carried out:
- sowing blood, cerebrospinal fluid, urine and joint fluid on special nutrient media, which allows not only to confirm the diagnosis, but also to determine the sensitivity of the pathogen to various medications;
- serological diagnosis - determination of the presence of antibodies in the blood.
General principles for the treatment of pasteurellosis
If a person discovers signs of the disease in question, then he should immediately seek qualified medical help.The doctor will prescribe a course of taking antibacterial drugs, of which tetracyclines and penicillins are most often used.
Without fail, a patient with pasteurellosis is prescribed general restorative therapy - the course is taken by immunomodulators, which protect the body from infection and increase immunity.
In general, the treatment of the disease in question is carried out on an individual basis, based on the clinical picture.For example, if a patient is worried by a high body temperature, then he is recommended to take antipyretic drugs, if he is worried about severe joint pain, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs will ease.
Pasteurellosis must be treated, because this infectious disease affects all organs and systems. Possible consequences of untreated pasteurellosis are:
- brain abscess;
- lung abscess;
- purulent arthritis.
Pasteurellosis is a rather dangerous disease that develops, it would seem, with a simple scratch from the animal.Doctors recommend not to ignore even the slightest damage to the skin of animals, carefully monitor the health status - even a minor inflammatory process is the reason for seeking qualified medical care.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category