Duodenitis: Symptoms and Treatment
The inflammatory process that develops on the mucosa of the duodenum is classified in medicine as duodenitis.Most often, this pathology is diagnosed in male patients, often duodenitis is combined with gastritis.Table of contents: Causes of duodenitis development Types of duodenitis Symptoms of duodenitis How duodenitis is diagnosed Treatment of duodenitis
Causes of duodenitis development
Factors that can trigger the development of the disease under consideration are in fact very many. The most "notable" of them are:
- alcohol abuse;
- regular use in large quantities of oily, spicy foods and smoked products;
- poisoning with poisons - for example, duodenitis is diagnosed in almost 100% of cases in patients who have a history of poisoning with poisonous fungi;
- helminthic invasion - duodenitis begins to develop against the background of mechanical damage to the duodenal mucosa, bacterial infection.
According to statistics, duodenitis is often diagnosed against the background of some other disease of the gastrointestinal organs, so doctors often view it as one of the types of complications.
- pancreatic disease - pancreatitis( inflammation of the gland), diabetes mellitus;
- peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum - the formation of ulcers on the mucosa of these organs;
- pathology of the gallbladder - cholecystitis( inflammation), cholelithiasis, postcholecystectomy syndrome( occurs in the rehabilitation period after removal of the gallbladder);
- gastritis - inflammation of the stomach;
- Crohn's disease - an inflammatory process that spreads and progresses in all layers of the intestinal wall, can be present in all parts of the intestine;
- tumors of the gastrointestinal tract benign and / or malignant;
- Zollinger-Ellison syndrome - the cause of this condition can be a pancreatic tumor;
- viral hepatitis A;
- celiac disease is a violation of the digestive system, which is provoked by damage to the villi of the small intestine.
Often the cause of the development of the disease under consideration is the bacterium Helikobakter Pilori, which can cause development and gastritis.
Types of duodenitis
In medicine, the disease under consideration is classified in two directions:
- Nature of the inflammatory process.It can be common( most often just such duodenitis and diagnose), when the entire duodenum is involved in the pathological process.Often diagnosed and local duodenitis.In this case, inflammation occurs only in a specific part of the duodenum:
- Inflammation of the distal part - the area of the duodenal transition into the skin;
- bulbit - the process proceeds in the bulb of the duodenum;
- papillitis - pathology is found in the area of the Fater's papilla;
- Sphincteritis is an inflammatory process located in the area of the sphincter of Oddi.
- The form of the disease.In this case, the doctor will allocate an acute or chronic form.In the first case, duodenitis is characterized by a short-term course, most often it occurs with poisoning or against a background of a viral infection.But chronic duodenitis is characterized by a prolonged course, periods of exacerbation are followed by periods of remission.As the chronic duodenitis progresses, the doctor will ascertain the stages of the inflammatory process:
- superficial duodenitis - inflammation occurs only in the upper layer of the duodenal mucosa, the duration of the disease is a maximum of 3 months;
- atrophic - the mucous membrane is thinned, the duodenal glands are involved in the pathological process, there is a violation of the formation and secretion of gastric juice;
- erosive, interstitial - on the mucous membrane of the duodenum ulcers are clearly visible.
Symptoms of duodenitis
The main symptom of the inflammatory process under consideration is pain syndrome.Moreover, it can occur in different parts of the abdomen, depending on what kind of duodenitis develops in the patient. It is worth remembering the following gradation:
- With the development of superficial duodenitis, the patient will complain of pain in the upper abdomen( slightly above the navel).Moreover, the pain in this case will be mild, and be characterized as a minor discomfort.
- If the patient develops an erosive duodenitis, the pain will have a clear localization - specifically over the navel.To wear character it will be sharp, sudden, and appear on an empty stomach.
Note: if there is an atrophic duodenitis, then the pain syndrome may be completely absent, but the patients will complain of constant fatigue, general weakness and headaches.
Other symptoms of this disease include:
- decreased appetite - in some cases, the patient generally refuses to eat;
- seasonality of the appearance of duodenitis symptoms - they are pronounced in autumn and spring;
- temperature increase to subfebrile indicators - this symptom is not always present;Heartburn and bloating
- - these symptoms appear immediately after eating any food;
- vomiting - most often with duodenitis it is single, but there may be exceptions when the patient tears 3-4 times a day;
- prolonged hiccough and eructation with a bitter taste;
- sensation that the heart begins to work with interruptions - so the heart palpitations show itself.
Note: if the patient has an erosive duodenitis and there are already extensive ulcers on the duodenal mucosa, bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract may develop.This symptom is extremely rare if the patient does not perform treatment and does not follow the recommendations of a nutritionist.
How duodenitis is diagnosed
The doctor will never diagnose without a complete examination of the patient, especially since the symptoms of duodenitis can indicate other pathological processes in the body. As part of the diagnosis of the disease in question, the following activities will be carried out:
- Collecting an anamnesis of life and illness - were there any similar diseases in the family, is there a history of gastritis, peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcer and other diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, How often there is a pain syndrome and so on.
- Inspection of the patient - palpation of the abdomen is performed, in which the patient can pay attention to the increasing pain over the navel.
- Laboratory tests - biochemical and general blood tests, urinalysis total, analysis of feces for detecting blood, coprogram.
- Instrumental research - ultrasound of the abdominal cavity organs, esophagogastroduodenoscopy, gastric juice acidity, colonoscopy, radiography of the stomach, computed tomography of the abdominal cavity organs.
Note: the doctor may not perform all of these tests - for example, instead of esophagogastroduodenoscopy, a radiograph of the stomach can be used and often this is sufficient to make an accurate diagnosis, and fecal occult blood analysis is performed only if there is a suspicion of bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract.
Treatment of duodenitis
Treatment of the inflammatory process under consideration should be comprehensive and carried out under the supervision of specialists.
The doctor prescribes a diet when diagnosing duodenitis. It is understood that in the acute form of the disease the following instructions will be made to the patient:
- to limit the consumption of cocoa, chocolate and black coffee;
- to exclude from the ration alcoholic beverages, pickled and salted products, smoking and preserving, lard and fresh bakery products, sorrel and spinach, fatty meat and fish varieties, mustard and other condiments;
- is allowed to eat soups, mashed potatoes / buckwheat / oatmeal, cottage cheese, eggs, weak tea and wheat bread of yesterday's baking.
This diet should be adhered to not only during the immediate course of acute duodenitis, but also within a month after the main treatment is over - it will help the intestines to recover and work in normal mode.
If the patient is diagnosed with chronic duodenitis, the instructions of the nutritionist will be somewhat different:
- is strictly forbidden to eat sorrel, spinach, fatty fish and meat, mustard, fresh buns not only during periods of exacerbation of the disease, but alsoWith remission;
- is allowed to enter in the menu cereals, soups, loose broths, cream and vegetable oils, milk and sour-milk products, low-fat fish and meat in boiled and baked form, fruits and vegetables, compotes, jelly, soft tea and coffee.
Both in acute duodenitis and in chronic exacerbation, doctors prescribe medications - they are selected, of course, individually. There are some general recommendations for drug therapy of duodenitis:
- Patients are prescribed antibacterial drugs( antibiotics) - if duodenitis is caused by the bacterium Helicobacter Pylori;
- anti-invasive drugs - in case of diagnosing a patient with helminthic invasions;
- antispasmodics or painkillers - they will be needed only if the pain syndrome is bright.
Its use in duodenitis is not denied even by official medicine, but doctors always make an amendment - to use the methods of treating inflammation of the duodenal mucosa from the category of "folk medicine" is possible only during periods of remission and after consultation with the attending physician.
The most popular and effective folk remedies:
- Broth from St. John's wort.It is prepared from 2 tablespoons of dry raw material and 250 ml of water, a glass with this product is put on a water bath and heated( without boiling!) For half an hour.To take a decoction of St. John's wort, you need 1/3 cup three times a day for 15 minutes before eating.
- Honey and plantain.If you mix 1 teaspoon of honey and the same juice of plantain, you will get an excellent medicine for diagnosed erosive duodenitis.Take this drug should be 1 tablespoon three times a day for 15-30 minutes before meals.
- Kissel from the hips.To make it, you need to take a glass of dry wild hips and 1 liter of water, boil without boiling for 30 minutes, then cool to room temperature and strain.We take the fruits from the fruit compote, crush them and set them aside.Now you need to take the mashed fruits, pour the broth already received and boil for another 15 minutes, at the end of cooking a corn or corn poured into the compote corn or potato starch, previously diluted in water in the proportion of 1 teaspoon of starch per 100 ml of water.You can take jelly at any time and in unlimited quantities.
Duodenitis is a disease characterized by a favorable prognosis.Even in chronic cases, patients can live fully, work and do not take permanent medications.To do this, it is enough only to undergo regular preventive examinations with a therapist or gastroenterologist, adhere to the recommended diet and diet.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category