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Sensorineural hearing loss

Tugouhost Sensorineural hearing loss is a hearing loss that develops as a result of disrupting the operation of the sensorineural structures of the auditory analyzer.Sensorineural hearing loss is most common among the elderly.However, in recent years, this unfavorable diagnosis is increasingly put people of working age.The reason for this is the urbanization of the population and the constant noise load that we face every day at work and at home.

Contents: Causes Symptoms and degrees of hearing loss Diagnosis Treatment of sensorineural hearing loss

Causes of

Several ear and nervous system structures respond to sound perception. The development of sensorineural hearing loss may be associated with the damage of such structures:

  1. Internal ear snails - here are epithelial receptor cells that respond directly to the perception of sound;
  2. Auditory nerve - transfers auditory impulses from the cochlea to the brain;
  3. Hearing centers localized in the cerebral cortex - responsible for perception from the inner ear of the auditory impulse.

Inner-ear-human

Sensorineural hearing loss is congenital and acquired.In addition, distinguish between acute and chronic forms of the disease.About acute hearing loss is said when the period of the onset of symptoms lasts up to one month.When the pathological process lasts for more than a month, one can already talk about chronic hearing loss.Separately, there is a sudden neurosensory deafness, which is rapidly developing literally in a matter of hours.

There are several reasons that can lead to the development of sensorineural hearing loss:

  1. Postponed infectious diseases( influenza, parainfluenza, adenovirus infection, syphilis, measles, parotitis, scarlet fever);
  2. Bacterial lesion of auditory analyzer structures with average otitis media, labyrinthitis, and meningitis;
  3. Hereditary diseases, malformations;
  4. Vascular disorders( arterial hypertension, osteochondrosis of the cervical spine, atherosclerosis of cerebral vessels), leading to circulatory disorders in the cerebral vessels feeding, including structures of the auditory analyzer;
  5. Tugouhost Toxic effects of certain drugs: antibiotics-aminoglycosides( gentamicin, kanamycin) and streptomycins, diuretics( furosemide, ethacrynic acid), salicylic acid derivatives( aspirin);
  6. Traumatic injury - with craniocerebral trauma, barotrauma - with sudden changes in atmospheric pressure, which is observed when immersed in water, acoustic trauma - when exposed to intense sound;
  7. Professional factors - excess noise levels in the workplace;
  8. Allergic, autoimmune diseases;
  9. Age changes( presbybacussis), manifested by atrophy of the neuromuscular system;
  10. Tumor formation - neurinoma of the auditory nerve, neoplasm of the middle ear, brain.

Symptoms and Degrees of Hearing Aid

The main complaint that patients express neurosensory hearing loss is a decrease in hearing on one or both ears.Deterioration of hearing can occur suddenly or develop gradually, with no tendency to periodic deterioration or improvement of hearing.Also, patients complain of constant noise in the ears - tinnitus.In order to assess the severity of the pathological process and develop a suitable treatment regimen for the doctor, it is necessary to determine the degree of hearing loss. So, four degrees of hearing loss are distinguished:

  • First degree( easy) - the threshold of audibility rises to a level of 25-40 dB;
  • Second degree( moderate) - the threshold of audibility rises to the level of 41-55 dB;
  • Second degree( moderate) - the threshold of audibility rises to the level of 41-55 dB;
  • The third degree( moderately heavy) - the threshold of audibility rises to a level of 56-70 dB;
  • Fourth degree( heavy) - the threshold of audibility rises to a level of 71-90 dB;
  • Deafness is more than 90 dB.

Tugouhost

The term "hearing loss" means a partial reduction in hearing acuity.That is, sensorineural hearing loss is characterized by a partial deterioration of hearing, but further progression of the disease in the absence of treatment can lead to a complete hearing loss - deafness.

It should be noted that the vestibular part of the labyrinth can be involved in the pathological process.In this case, a person with sensorineural hearing loss may also be disturbed by dizziness and imbalance.

Diagnosis

When a person turns to an otorhinolaryngologist with a complaint about hearing loss, first of all, it is necessary to conduct a study of hearing acuity. For the diagnosis of sensorineural hearing loss, the following tests are carried out:

  • Tumor tests;
  • Tone audiometry;
  • Acoustic impedance measurement;
  • Vestibulometry;
  • According to indications: EchoEG, REG - for studying the blood circulation of the brain, X-ray examination of the cervical spine.

By the way, anyone can check their ears with a smartphone.Now there are many applications for Android and iOS, created by the type of tonal audiometry, which will help to assess the severity of hearing .This is not a professional diagnosis, however, poor results should be a reason for a full examination in the otorhinolaryngologist.

Treatment of sensorineural hearing loss

With respect to neurosensory hearing loss, the statement is true - the earlier treatment is started, the more likely the hearing will be kept.Treatment should be focused on eliminating the underlying cause, after which pathogenetic therapy is connected.

Medical treatment

Acute sensorineural hearing loss is well amenable to correction with the help of medical treatment . But such methods of treatment, unfortunately, will be ineffective in chronic hearing loss. It should be understood that with a long-term pathological process, sensitive epithelial cells that perceive sound die and can not be restored.At this stage, the treatment aims to keep the hearing at the current level and prevent further progression of the disease.

In general, the following medicines are used in the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss:

  • Tugouhost Antibacterial agents - for the deafness of bacterial genesis;
  • Antiviral drugs( Interferon, Remantadin) - with a deafness of viral genesis;
  • Means that improve microcirculation( Trental, Cavinton, Cerebrolysin, Pyracetam);
  • Histaminomimetics( Betaserk, Betagistin) - to eliminate vestibular disorders( dizziness, nausea);
  • Spasmolytic agents( Papaverine hydrochloride, dibasol);
  • Corticosteroids( dexamethasone) - prescribed by short courses with sudden sensorineural hearing loss;
  • Vitamins of group B( Neurovitan, Neurorubin) - for regeneration of nervous tissue;
  • Metabolic agents( Co-carboxylase, ATP) - for the restoration of metabolic processes.

Physiotherapeutic treatment

Fizioterapia To intensify the effect of drug treatment, the patient is prescribed physiotherapy. Absolutely accessible method is acupuncture, the essence of which is the effect on the active points of medical needles.The procedure is appointed by the course for ten procedures.

Another method is hyperbaric oxygenation. During the procedure, the patient breathes a high-oxygen mixture that is supplied under pressure.The intake of oxygen improves microcirculation, including increases blood supply to the cells of the inner ear.Course - 10 procedures.

Hearing Aid

With a chronic sensorineural hearing loss of more than 40 dB, when a person can not distinguish between speech, a hearing aid is selected. The device amplifies sounds and the patient already hears a speech addressed to him, can communicate normally and do not feel uncomfortable at the same time.

With sensorineural hearing loss caused by damage to the organ of the organ, cochlear implantation is indicated.What is this technology?Sounds and speech of a person enter a small microphone that is connected to an amplifier and a processor, where the auditory signal is transformed.Then the signals go to the transmitter.This is the outer part of the device, which is attached behind the ear.Then the signal goes to the receiver embedded in the temporal bone.

From the receiver, the sound signal is transmitted through electrodes embedded in the cochlea of ​​the inner ear near the auditory nerve.Electrodes stimulate the nerve, which transmits nerve impulses to the proper centers of the brain, perceiving acoustic information.This technique allows you to compensate for hearing even with a severe degree of ailment.

Grigorova Valeria, medical reviewer


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