First aid for head injury
Mar 25, 2018
Any injury to the head is considered dangerous, since there is a high probability of brain damage.At the same time, the swelling of the brain tissue is rapidly developing, which leads to the wedging of part of the brain into the large occipital opening.The result is a disruption of the activities of vital centers that are responsible for breathing and circulation - a person quickly loses consciousness, the probability of a lethal outcome is high.
Another reason for the high risk of head injuries is an excellent blood supply to this part of the body, which leads in case of damage to large blood loss.And in this case it will be necessary to stop the bleeding as soon as possible.
Knowing how to correctly provide first aid in case of head injuries is important to everyone - correctly conducted measures can actually save the life of the victim.Table of contents: Head injuries and soft tissue injuries Closed head injuries Maxillofacial trauma Dislocation of the lower jaw
Head injuries and soft tissue injuries
The soft tissues of the head include skin, muscles and subcutaneous tissue.If their bruise has occurred, then soreness appears, a little later there may be a swelling( all known "bumps"), the skin in the place of the bruise acquires a red shade, and then a bruise is formed.
With a bruise, it is necessary to apply cold to the injured place - it may be a bottle of cold water, an ice pack with ice, a bag of meat from the freezer.Next, you need to apply a pressure bandage and be sure to take the injured to a medical facility, even if it feels fine.The fact is that only a specialist can give an objective assessment of the state of health, exclude damage to the cranial bones and / or a concussion of the brain.
Damage to soft tissues can also be accompanied by intensive bleeding, possibly exfoliation of skin flaps - doctors call it a scalp wound.If the blood flows slowly and has a dark color, then it is necessary to apply a sterile bandage on the wound with a sterile material - for example, an iron bandage or a piece of tissue ironed on both sides with a hot iron is suitable.If the blood beats with a stream, then this indicates a damage to the artery and the pressure bandage becomes absolutely useless in this case.It will be necessary to apply the tourniquet horizontally to the forehead and above the ears, but only if the scalp is damaged.If the victim has little blood loss( help was given quickly), then he is taken to the hospital in a sitting or lying position - he is strictly forbidden to stand.If the blood loss is extensive, then the skin of the victim quickly acquires a pale shade, he has a cold sweat on his face, an excitement may come, which turns into inhibition - urgent hospitalization is necessary and strictly accompanied by an ambulance brigade.
First aid action algorithm:
- The victim is placed on a flat surface, which is covered with something - a jacket, a blanket, any clothes.Under the lower leg is placed a platen.
- If the patient is unconscious, then put the palms on both sides under his lower jaw and slightly tip the head back, while pushing the chin forward.
- The oral cavity of the affected person should be cleaned of saliva with a clean handkerchief, and then you need to turn your head to the side - this will prevent the ingestion of vomit into the respiratory tract.
- If there is a foreign body in the wound, it can not be moved or attempted to remove at all - this can increase the amount of brain damage and significantly increase bleeding.
- The skin surrounding the lesion is cleaned with a towel or any tissue, then a bandage is applied to the wound: several layers of fabric / gauze, then on top of the wound any hard object( TV remote, soap bar) and well bandages so that the object is squeezedvessel.
- If the bleeding is too strong and the dressing is not possible, it is necessary to press the fingers around the wound with your fingers so that the blood stops flowing.Such a finger pressing is necessary before the arrival of the ambulance brigade.
After the bleeding has been stopped, ice or a bottle of cold water can be applied to the wound, the victim himself carefully covered up and urgently delivered to any medical institution.
Note: if there is a flabby skin flap, it must be wrapped in a sterile cloth( or any other rags), placed in a cold place( it is forbidden to put it on the ice!) And sent along with the victim to a medical facility - most likely, surgeons will be able toUse this skin flap to perform soft tissue repair operations.
Closed head injuries
If a bone injury occurs in the upper part of the skull, then it is almost impossible to determine if a fracture is present without an X-ray examination.Therefore, if you hit the scalp, it will be a mistake to think that there was only a bruise.The victim must be laid on a stretcher without a pillow, put ice on his head and deliver it to a medical institution.If such a trauma is accompanied by nausea, vomiting, impaired consciousness and breathing, then assistance should be provided in accordance with the symptoms, up to an indirect massage of the heart and artificial respiration.
The most severe and dangerous head trauma is a fracture of the base of the skull.Such a trauma often occurs when falling from a height, but characteristic of it is damage to the brain.A distinctive feature of the fracture of the base of the skull is the allocation of a colorless liquid( liquor) or blood from the ears and nose.If there was a trauma of the facial nerve, the person's asymmetry is noted.The patient has a rare pulse, and a day later develops a hemorrhage in the orbit.
Note: , the transportation of the injured with a fracture of the base of the skull should be extremely careful, without shaking the stretcher.The patient is placed on a stretcher on his stomach( in this case, it is necessary to constantly monitor the absence of vomiting) or on his back, but in this position his head should be gently turned to his side if he starts vomiting.In order to avoid tongue twisting during transportation on the back, the patient is slightly opened his mouth, laying a bandage under his tongue( he is pulled out a little ahead of him).
If the bruise is marked with severe pain and swelling, the lips quickly become inactive.First aid in this case is to apply a pressure bandage and apply cold to the site of injury.
If the fracture of the lower jaw, the victim can not talk, a salivary salivation starts from the half-open mouth.Fracture of the upper jaw is extremely rare, accompanied by acute pain and rapid accumulation of blood in the subcutaneous tissue, which radically changes the shape of the face.
What you need to do in case of jaw fracture:
- You need to fix the tongue and prevent it from falling over( this can happen even if the victim is conscious).
- The finger should be wrapped around with a cloth or bandage and clean the mouth of the person affected by fluid, blood or mucus.
- If there is severe bleeding, then you need to press your finger with the point located in front of the tragus of the ear at the cheekbone or on the lower jaw in front of the front edge of the masticatory muscle( this is approximately at the angle of the mouth).
- If the bleeding does not stop, then before the arrival of medical personnel it will be necessary to press the carotid artery on the affected side.
- It is necessary to fix jaw fragments( if any).To do this, any ruler or wand is wrapped with a tissue and passed through the mouth, and the protruding ends are tightly fixed with a bandage around the head.
Please note: carries this patient to a medical facility lying on his stomach.If the victim suddenly turned pale, then it is necessary to raise the lower end of the stretcher( or just the legs when self-transported) so that the head of the blood goes to the head, but you need to make sure that the bleeding does not increase.
Dislocation of the lower jaw
This injury is very common, because it can happen with laughter, too wide yawning, with a stroke, and in elderly people there is a habitual dislocation of the jaw.
Signs of the status in question:
- open mouth;
- strong salivation;
- speech is not present( the victim makes mooching sounds);
- jaw movements are obstructed.
Help consists in correcting the dislocation.To do this, the one who provides assistance, you need to stand in front of the victim, sitting on a chair.In the mouth, thumbs are inserted along the lower molars.Then the jaw is pushed back and down with effort.If the manipulation was carried out correctly, movements in the jaw and speech of the victim immediately recovered.
Note: when refreshing the jaw of the victim spontaneously closes with a large amplitude and strength.Therefore, before the procedure, you need to wrap your fingers with any tissue and try to immediately immediately after the appearance of a characteristic click( this joint is in place) immediately pulling the hands out of the victim's mouth.Otherwise, it is possible to cause injury to someone who provides assistance.Recommended to read:
Any injuries and injuries to the head must be under medical supervision.Even a banal blow can lead to a concussion of the brain, which will necessarily affect the overall health.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category