Constipation: possible causes, symptoms, effects, treatment and diet for constipation
Constipation is a pathological condition in which defecation is delayed for 48 hours or more.This problem is attributed to very frequent health disorders.According to medical statistics, the most frequent of constipations are small children and elderly people, which is often associated with a violation of intestinal motility.In countries where a significant number of people are fed on fast food, one in ten of the residents notes stool retention.It should be noted that women suffer from this problem 3 times more often than men of the same age.Table of contents: Causes of constipation Symptoms of constipation What are the complications of constipation?Diagnosis What to do in the treatment of constipation?
Causes of constipation
Constipation in adults can develop for a number of reasons.The most common factors leading to a delay in bowel movement are severe stress, prolonged travel, and also after surgical intervention.
Important: in case the pathology pursues a person permanently, that is, it is a chronic constipation, a comprehensive medical examination and appropriate treatment is required.
Common causes of pathology include:
- small volume of consumed liquid;
- inaccuracies in the diet( consumption of products with a low amount of plant fibers):
- stool stones;
- chronic inflammation of the pancreas;
- ulcerative lesions of the digestive tract;
- neurological pathologies( stroke, parkinsonism, multiple sclerosis);
- injuries( including trauma) of the spinal cord;
- hypothyroidism( thyroid dysfunction);
- suppressed, depressed state.
Constipation often accompanies reception of a number of pharmacological drugs - antacids and Atropine.
Often there is constipation during pregnancy: this pathology is diagnosed in about 2/3 of future mothers.
The reason for constipation in infants with breastfeeding can become dysbiosis.
Symptoms of constipation
Constipation is caused by the fact that the advancement of "waste products of vital activity" is sharply slowed by the presence of an obstacle or by relaxing the intestinal walls( i.e., reducing the natural motor skills).
The patient can not empty the intestines for two or more days.The accumulation of fecal masses can be accompanied by general discomfort and pain in the abdominal region( in the abdomen).Many patients are haunted by the feeling of "raspiraniya" intestines.
Other characteristic symptoms include:
- appetite impairment;
- an unpleasant aftertaste in the mouth;
- pain behind the sternum;
- heartbeat and tachycardia;
- muscle pain;
- a drop in vitality;
- appearance of nervousness and irritability.
Note: for chronic constipation shows changes in the skin : they become less elastic, flabby and white-yellowish.What complications can constipation lead to?
To such a problem as constipation, it should be treated with all seriousness.In addition to immediate complications such as a feeling of heaviness, pain and flatulence, it is not excluded:
- diverticulosis of the colon( a common problem with constipation in the elderly);
- intestinal obstruction;
- bleeding from the veins of the hemorrhoidal node.
These symptoms are a signal for hospitalization and, most likely, an urgent surgical intervention.
Difficulties in defecation can be the first signs of the onset of the development of very serious endocrine diseases and pathologies of the digestive tract.In addition, constipation is often a symptom of neoplasm formation in the intestine.The most serious complication of chronic constipation is colon cancer.There is a theory that the toxins present in the contents of the lower parts of the digestive tract, when they are stagnant, are powerful carcinogens.
Trying to cope with this delicate problem without the help of a specialist can only complicate the diagnosis and delay adequate therapy.
In order to establish the true cause of constipation, a number of specialists will be consulted.The patient should first turn to the gastroenterologist or proctologist, and women - in addition to undergo examination at the gynecologist.
For the diagnosis of the pathological condition, methods such as colonoscopy and irrigoscopy are widely used.
Note: colonoscopy involves the examination of the large intestine by means of a back-illuminated probe that is inserted through the anus.Irrigoscopy is a non-invasive hardware study that involves intestinal fluoroscopy after filling it with radiopaque material.
In addition, ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity can be performed, as well as intestinal motility examination by means of successive X-ray images.
To clarify the diagnosis, in some cases, a laboratory study of the patient's stools may be necessary.
What to do in the treatment of constipation?
Constipation control agents can be used only when the true cause of problems with timely evacuation of the intestine is clear.
What to do with constipation at home?
First of all, with constipation, you need a diet.The diet should include food with the maximum content of plant fiber.In particular, you need to consume bread from rye flour and bran.It is advisable to eat as much vegetables and fruits as possible.The food should be divided, that is, in small portions, but 5-6 times a day.
Note: e If you are looking for how to get rid of constipation, watch for drinking regimen!In day it is necessary to consume not less than 2 liters of a liquid( it is desirable - pure water).The most common folk remedies for constipation are teas, which include hay leaves and buckthorn bark.
A good effect helps to achieve with an enema constipation.In the composition of enemas it is desirable to include vegetable oils or fish oil.
Important: with constipation from constipation is by no means a cure, but rather an ambulance.
Treatment of constipation in the home requires active lifestyles.Even if you do not have time for every morning or evening jogging - do gymnastics directly from your workplace.
If you take medications that aggravate intestinal motility( antidepressants, antacids or atropine), you should end up taking them, at least - for a while.
When conservative measures do not produce the expected effect, then laxatives are shown with constipation.
If the problem is caused by a benign or malignant neoplasm on the intestinal wall, then the only means for constipation is urgent surgical intervention.
What should I do if constipation develops in a child?
The main causes of constipation in a newborn are:
- diseases of the digestive system( including congenital malformations);
- pathology of the nervous system and endocrine organs;
- hypovitaminosis D( rickets);
- imperfection of the nervous system;
- a lactating mother's diet( consumption of products with a "fixing effect").
It should be remembered that the amount of feces in the baby is strictly individual.When assessing the condition, you need to focus not on the volume and frequency of stool, but on weight gain.
For infants on artificial feeding, the stool should be at least 1 time per day.
Constipation in newborns can be suspected if there are:
- restless behavior of the child;
- loss of appetite;
- considerable straining during defecation;
- secretion of intestinal gases with a sharp putrefactive odor;
- poor weight gain.
If you notice at least one of the above clinical signs, immediately contact your local pediatrician for help.
Symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of constipation in children are described in detail in a video review by Dr. Komarovsky:Konev Alexander, therapist