First aid with a snake bite
Mar 26, 2018
Poisoning by snake venom is considered not so rare.Quite often snake bites happen on the nature - for example, in a hike or on field works, therefore the basics of clinical toxicology, the rules of behavior for snake bites and symptoms should know absolutely everything.
There are many kinds of snakes on the earth, but the person most often suffers from reptile bites only three types - viper, already-like and aspidic.Contents:
Kinds of poisonous snakes and characteristics of their bites
The family of the already-like
is more common than ordinary and copper.The bites of these snakes do not pose a threat to human life, and they can not fundamentally shake their health.But directly the bite is accompanied by powerful painful sensations, the suppuration of the wound can develop.
Family of Viper
The most vivid representative of this species is the viper ordinary.This snake is peace-loving, bites a person only in case of direct anxiety - for example, if a person grabs the viper with his hands, comes upon it.In general, seeing a person, an ordinary viper tries to crawl away, hide or continue to lie quietly, watching the potential enemy.
Mortality after bite of this species of poisonous snakes is only 1% of the total mass.This low rate is associated with the fact that the snake injects a small amount of poison into the human body, it saves it - the creation and accumulation of the next portion is too tiring for the reptile.
A venom of an adder with a bite can get into muscle tissue, under the skin or in the lumen of the vessel.The last option is the most difficult - the spread of the poison is instant, the symptoms are too heavy.
A bright representative of this species is the Central Asian cobra.Often, the cobra first warns the enemy of the attack, even can simulate a bite - she stands up in a characteristic rack, expands her neck, makes a loud hiss and makes a sharp throw to the lower limbs of a person, hitting their head with a closed mouth.
The main component of Central Asian cobra venom is the neurotoxin - it blocks the sensitivity of the skin, worsens the nerve impulse, provokes the development of paralysis and paresis.
Symptoms of bites of poisonous snakes
It may happen that a person does not notice a snake bite, so you need to know the basic symptoms of snake poison poisoning in order to be able to provide medical assistance.
Symptoms of a viper bite:
- at the bite site, 1 or 2 punctures of the skin will be clearly visible;
- the wounds on the site of the bite burn, slightly sore;
- after 10-30 minutes the place of the bite swells and turns red;
- the skin becomes cyanotic-purple;
- begins nausea, dizziness, drowsiness, a decrease in body temperature.
If severe intoxication develops, the above symptoms will be accompanied by the following symptoms:
- strong weakness;
- clearly defined pallor of the skin;
- the limbs become cold;
- marked by confusion;
- may develop heat and shortness of breath, loss of consciousness and renal insufficiency.
Symptoms of Central Asian bite:
- at the bite site there is a sharp, burning pain, which subsides only a few hours;
- , the color of the skin at the bite site remains practically unchanged;
- , there is swelling in the area of the wound, but not as pronounced as when bitten by an ordinary viper;
- from the wound can bleed a blood clear liquid;
- functions of the affected limb are broken, paralysis develops in the ascending direction;
- face muscles suffer - involuntary lowering of eyelids and lower jaw, movement of eyeballs is disturbed.
With the bite of the Central Asian cobra, the symptoms of general intoxication develop rapidly:
- general weakness;
- Anxiety of unexplained etiology;
- difficulty breathing;
- swallowing disorder;
- increased salivation;
- nausea and vomiting, hiccough;
- speech becomes silent and incoherent;Involuntary urination and defecation.
Note: if a person does not receive medical care after a bite of the Central Asian cobra, then his death occurs within 2-7 hours from stopping breathing.
What determines the severity of symptoms after a bite of a venomous snake:
- Age of the bitten person.The most intense symptoms of poisoning with snake venom appear in children and the elderly.Also plays a role and the presence of internal diseases, the level of immunity and general health.
- Kind of snake, its size and age.It is believed that an ordinary viper is less dangerous than a Central Asian cobra, although in any case the bite of these reptiles causes serious health problems.Less dangerous are the bites of young snakes, small in size.
- The state of the teeth of the snake.If they are infected, penetration into the wound of pathogenic microorganisms will be an obligatory moment - this aggravates the development of symptoms.
- The bite site.Most often, the lower extremities are affected, and then the symptoms will develop slowly.But there are snake bites in the neck, in the face, and in the location of large blood vessels - the symptoms will develop rapidly.Behavior of a person after a bite.If the bitten will actively move and run, then the spread of snake venom through the body will be faster - the intensity of the symptoms will be powerful.
First aid for biting a venomous snake
So, everything has already happened - a man was bitten by a poisonous snake.What should be done in this case, how to help the victim and prevent the development of serious complications?
First, you need to put the bitten to the horizontal position and try to calm - anxiety, hysteria and panic will not exactly help.If the snake was fixed on the skin at the site of the bite( this, by the way, happens often), it must be removed and destroyed, but not thrown out anywhere - the reptile may be needed for examination by a specialist.
Secondly, if possible, you need to immediately call an ambulance, contact the rescue team or recreation center, hotel.While you are doing all these actions, carefully observe the victim - lack of burning, swelling and pain in the place of bite, most likely indicate the non-venomousness of the snake.
Thirdly, the affected part should be freed from clothing and ornaments - they can exert pressure on the bite site and provoke an increase in edema.
Please note : if the symptoms indicate that a venomous snake has bitten a person, then it is necessary to provide medical care immediately, without waiting for the arrival of the ambulance brigade!
- If a venomous snake bites a limb, then it must be immobilized - a bandage or a longlet can be applied to the leg or arm from the materials( board, branch).
- It is advisable to extract poison from the wound for a maximum of 10 minutes after the incident.If you have a rubber pear with you, then we work it, if not, we use the mouth.First you need to clamp the wounds from the bite between the fingers and lightly stretch them - this will help to "open" them, then grasp the bite with your teeth and begin to actively suck the poison, while helping with your fingers( as if "squeezing").Poison with spit immediately spit out, the duration of this procedure should not exceed 20 minutes - during this time you can remove from the body 50% of the total amount of poison.
- We process the bite site with a disinfectant - hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine, zelenka will do.You can not treat wound with alcohol.
- Apply a bandage of bandage or any piece of clean cloth to the wound.It should in no case be tight - this fact is checked by pushing your finger under the bandage( it should pass freely).
- Cold is applied to the bite site - ice is the best option.If this type of cooling is used, then every 5-7 minutes you need to take a break in the procedure for 5 minutes - this will prevent frostbite.
- The victim is given antihistamine medications - Tavegil, Dimedrol, Loratadin.If there is a possibility, then such drugs are administered intramuscularly.
- Bitten should consume a lot of liquid - up to 5 liters of water per day.This will help reduce the effects of intoxication of the body.It is necessary to give the patient vitamins K and C, and if possible - to put a dropper with glucose( 5% solution in an amount of 400 ml).
- The sufferer is given glucocorticosteroid drugs( Prednisolone or Dexamethasone), you can enter them intramuscularly.
- If a person is bitten by the Central Asian cobra, his breathing may be disturbed.To ease his condition, you need to periodically apply a cotton wool soaked with ammonia to his nose.
- If the respiratory and heart failure rapidly develop, then the bitten enter Caffeine, Ephedrine or Cordiamin.
- In case of complete stop of breathing and heart beat, the patient is given artificial respiration and indirect heart massage.
What can not be done with a bite of a poisonous snake
The problem is that people with a bite of a venomous snake begin to perform actions that can lead to the development of severe complications. It should be clearly remembered that in no case can you do with the condition under consideration:
- cauterize the bite site;
- apply heat to the affected area;
- apply a tourniquet to the affected limb - this leads to a rapid and deep spread of the poison in the tissue;
- to cut the bite site for the outflow of the poison;
- accept any alcoholic beverages;
- to enclose an ice limb for a long time;
- to expose the patient to physical exertion.
Poisoning with snake venom implies the introduction of specific sera( antidotes) - this is advisable to do the first day after the bite.In the future, if necessary, you can enter another dose of serum.
If a person is bitten by a snake of the type of viper, then it needs to enter in the first hours after the defeat the type of antidote considered.This remedy will help prevent the development of anaphylactic shock. And, it needs to be administered in accordance with a certain scheme and only in the subcutaneous area subcutaneously:
- is administered 0.1 ml of the agent;
- after 15 minutes, another 0, 25 ml is added;
- if signs of anaphylactic shock are absent, then the patient is injected with all the remaining serum( it is issued in ampoules of 500 IU).
If the degree of poisoning is light, then a maximum of 1000 IU of serum is administered to a person, with an average degree of 2000 IU, with a severe degree of 3000 IU.
Such serum is injected with snake bites from the family of aspidids and Central Asian cobra.Enter this antidote in an amount of 300 ml with a simultaneous intravenous infusion of a solution of Proserin and a solution of Atropine sulfate to 0, 5 mg every half hour.
Please note: treatment with a venomous snake bite is carried out only in a medical facility under the supervision of medical workers.Appointments are made in a strictly individual order, taking into account the general well-being of the victim, his age and the intensity of symptoms of poisoning.
Prevention of bites of poisonous snakes
There are no specific preventive measures to prevent bites of poisonous snakes. But there is a list of rules of behavior when encountering such reptiles:
- You can not scream, move sharply and wave a stick at a snake - such actions provoke a snake attack.
- When crossing high grass areas, you need to use a stick - it spreads the grass in front of it and determines the presence / absence of snakes.
- During the passage of potentially dangerous areas, you need to provide yourself with tight closed clothing and high boots / boots.
- To spend the night in a hike, campsite with tents, you need to choose a place with low vegetation, on an elevation, away from mountains and rocks.
- If you have to visit places remote from civilization, you need to have antidotes and the necessary kit of the first-aid kit.
- Before every use of the tent and sleeping bag, you must always check them for the absence of snakes.
The bite of a poisonous snake is unpleasant and even dangerous.But if to take measures to prevent the spread of poison in the body, to competently conduct the first medical aid, the consequences will not be terrible for human health and life.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category