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Opium addiction: symptoms of dependence, treatment, consequences of the use of opiates

Opium-zavisimost Opium addiction is a drug addiction that develops with the use of opiates.According to statistics, the percentage of the population involved in the use of opiates in the Russian Federation is several times higher than the level of abuse in European countries.And Russia is among the top three "leaders" in this indicator, second only to Afghanistan and Iraq.

Table of contents: Opiate drugs are signs of opium addiction. Opium addiction: stages The consequences of using opium drugs. Principles of treatment.

Opiate drugs

Opiates are obtained either from sleeping pills or synthetically.In Russia, the most common dependence on heroin, as well as opiate drugs from poppy straw, prepared by handicraft .In recent years, it has become very common desomorfinovy ​​drug "crocodile", which is made by handicraft from pharmacy kodeinosoderzhashchih drugs.This infernal mixture is extremely dangerous and literally kills a man in just a couple of years.

In general, opium drugs include:

  1. Natural preparations are raw materials from the hypnotic poppy, as well as omnopon medicines,
    morphine , codeine;
  2. Synthetic - methadone, promedol;
  3. Semisynthetic - heroin, oxycodone.

Types of opiates All these drugs have a similar narcotic effect.Differences are manifested in the timing of the formation of drug dependence, as well as the peculiarities of the course of withdrawal syndrome.Opium drugs are used in a variety of ways: injected parenterally, inhaled, smoked or ingested. Among opiates, heroin is considered the most narcotic substance, that is, when it is used, the dependence is formed very quickly.It is believed that the narcogenic potential of heroin is approximately five times higher than that of morphine.

Signs of opium addiction

Opiate drugs affect the opiate receptors in the brain.This action manifests itself in the form of pain relief, as well as the appearance of relaxation, the euphoria of . Opiate intoxication occurs in three phases:

  1. The first phase of the is the so-called "arrival" phase. Literally immediately after the introduction of opiates, a person feels like waves of heat are rising somewhere from the stomach up to the head.This condition is accompanied by a sensation of a slight push, a soft blow to the head.In this case, the patient feels some kind of pleasant itching in the face, especially the nose.It covers a feeling of inexplicable bliss, thoughts run faster, it seems that everything else in life is completely unimportant.This phase does not last long, just a couple of minutes.
  2. The second phase of the is the actual " buzz" stage.The patient is filled with a feeling of unprecedented enthusiasm, joy.Problems do not bother them, all disturbing thoughts disappear.A state of consciousness is dreamlike.Drug addicts feel relaxed, calm, pleasant dreamlike experiences change in my head.As a rule, a person during this period takes a half-lying position, covers his eyes.From the outside the person looks serene, slowed down.It should be noted that when using opiate narcotic drugs, as well as codeine, there is a stimulating effect, because of which the patient becomes fussy, restless, talkative.This phase lasts for 10-30 minutes.
  3. The next phase of the is the "kumara" stage. The patient falls into intermittent sleep, which lasts two to three hours.After the awakening of a drug addict, a depressed mood, anguish, anxiety is excruciated.

It is known that the first episode of the introduction of an opiate drug in every third person is not accompanied by the most pleasant sensations: nausea, vomiting, headache, severe dizziness, a feeling of heat, chills. But strangely enough, this first unfortunate experience does not stop the further use of the drug.

The narcotic substance is first used sporadically, which often happens in the company.The dose remains the same.On average, this stage lasts about two to three months.Rapidly, dependence develops with intravenous opiates, as well as in the abuse of artisanal drugs from the poppy.So, heroin causes dependence after three to five intravenous injections, and morphine after ten to fifteen injections.

The first stage of opium addiction is manifested by the already formed psychic dependence, the systematic use of the drug, the growing tolerance of .In the absence of an opiate drug, the patient feels a depressed mood, irritability.

The second stage of the disease develops after one to two months after the systematic use of drugs.Tolerance is very high and the addict uses all large doses of opiates .To feel the former euphoria is not possible even despite the increase in the dose.The patient has to inject the drug more often. At this stage is abruptly formed as an abstinence syndrome .

Six to seven hours after the last dose of the drug, the patient begins to experience such phenomena:

  • Opium Irritability, anxiety;
  • Yawning;
  • Lachrymation;
  • Catarrh, causeless sneezing, itching in the nose;
  • Tremor;
  • Insomnia;
  • Rapid heart rate;Chills, sweating;
  • Muscle Pain.

For the second day the pain in the muscles increases, it becomes unbearable.Anxiety and anxiety increase, the patient becomes angry, rushes.On the third day there are pains in the abdomen, diarrhea, blood pressure rises, heartbeat.Without medical intervention, withdrawal syndrome lasts up to two weeks.

At the time of the third stage, the euphorizing effect of the opiate drug has completely disappeared and the dependent "forced" to use the drug to somehow function. Prolonged use of opiates leads to severe disruption of many organs.

Consequences of the use of opium drugs

Opium effects

One of the dangerous consequences of using opiate drugs is an overdose.This condition is manifested by a fall in blood pressure, a decrease in heart rate, hypothermia, a narrowing of the pupils and what is most dangerous is the slowing down of breathing.Drug addicts die from respiratory arrest when they are overdosed with opiates.

Even if dependent can avoid overdose, health inevitably suffers from drug use .The appearance of a person who uses opiate narcotic for a long time has characteristic features.Such people look old, the face acquires an unhealthy hue, the hair and nails are fragile, the teeth fall out. Inflammatory diseases of the lungs, liver, kidneys often develop.

Persistent changes in the psyche are forming.Intellect decreases, concentration of attention and memory of are broken.The drug addict becomes disabled.In fact, the patient himself does not want to work, and the money for the dose is extracted by deception and theft.No one is interested in the patient himself, only if the dose was.

Principles of treatment

In case of an overdose of opiate drugs, the patient is referred to the toxicological department or immediately to the narcological department. First of all, the patient is given Naloxone, an antagonist of opiate receptors.In the event of stopping breathing or cardiac activity, resuscitation is carried out.To remove the drug from the body prescribe detoxifying agents, enterosorbents.

After overdosing and abstinence syndrome, the patient is shown psychotherapy in the rehabilitation center .Cure is possible only with long-term and complex treatment.

Grigorova Valeria, medical reviewer


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