Glossitis: Symptoms and Treatment
Glossitis is referred to as the inflammatory process in the area of the tongue, as well as other non-inflammatory pathological changes in the language.Glossitis can be an independent disease or one of the manifestations of another ailment.Table of contents:
Types of glossitis
Distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory glossitis.In the emergence of inflammatory glossitis, all sorts of microorganisms are guilty: fungi, bacteria, viruses.Inflammatory glossitis is divided into superficial and deep.
However, glossitis can develop not only as a result of infection, but also in systemic diseases, local effects of aggressive factors on the language( injuries, burns, smoking, etc.)
There are such forms of non-inflammatory glossitis :
In case of fungal infection of the mouth, language is involved in the process.Due to inflammation, the tongue swells and turns red.Fungi actively multiply, because of which a white coating quickly forms on the surface of the tongue.
Bacterial and viral infection can also be the cause of glossitis.If the inflammation is localized only on the mucous membrane, talk about the development of superficial glossitis.Redness and puffiness of the tongue indicate catarrhal glossitis, if ulcers are formed in the tongue, it is ulcerous glossitis.
When penetrating the infection deeper in the tissues of the tongue develops a deep glossitis with the formation of an abscess.The pathological condition is accompanied by throbbing pain, uneven increase in the tongue with swelling in the abscess area, slurred speech, increased salivation.
When the infection spreads to the entire tongue, as well as the lower jaw and neck, they talk about the development of phlegmonous glossitis.The development of this condition is indicated by severe pain in the area of the tongue, difficulty in speaking and breathing, enlargement of the mandibular, cervical lymph nodes, weakness, high fever.This condition requires emergency treatment.
This is an inflammatory-dystrophic disease of the tongue, which is accompanied by specific changes on the back of the tongue and its lateral surfaces.Desquamative glossitis is a common pathology, and this ailment affects people of any age.
This pathological condition is often formed against the background of existing diseases of the digestive tract, collagenoses, infectious and neuroendocrine diseases.
As a rule, desquamative glossitis is not accompanied by any subjective sensations.About the disease a person learns by accident either by looking at his language in the mirror, or at a reception at the dentist.It is rare to hear from a person with this form of glossitis a complaint of burning in the tongue.
Externally, the disease manifests itself in the form of appearance in the language of red round spots.Often, the foci increase, merge with each other.The spots form a bizarre pattern in the language, like a picture on a map, which causes the disease to be called a "geographical language".
Hairy( black) tongue is a fairly common pathology characterized by the sprouting of the filiform papillae of the tongue and their coloration in brown, black.The disease is more common among men.
The cause of this pathological condition is unknown.It is believed that the development of the hairy tongue is predisposed to violations of the metabolic processes of the epithelium of the tongue, smoking, changes in ph in the mouth, diseases of the digestive tract, infection, hypovitaminosis B2.
Patients with this disease complain about the sensation of a foreign body in the area of the back of the tongue, it's no wonder because sometimes the filiform papillae grow to two or three centimeters in height!In addition, itching may be disturbing, as well as the appearance of a vomiting reflex during a conversation.
Outwardly, in the region of the back of the tongue, it is possible to determine an oval or triangular area covered with enlarged threadlike brown, black papillae.Modified papillae resemble hair, because glossitis is called hairy.The lateral surface and the tip of the tongue remain unchanged.
This form of glossitis is characterized by atrophy of the papillae and the appearance in the center of the tongue of a diamond-shaped area with a modified mucosa.The provoking factors of rhomboid glossitis are smoking, hypovitaminosis, digestive tract diseases, reproduction of fungal flora.
The disease is characterized by the appearance in the posterior third of the tongue strictly on the median line of a diamond-shaped( less often oval) shape, measuring from a half centimeter to two centimeters, red or even blue.There are no papillae on this site.The pathological site is clearly delineated from the surrounding unaltered mucous membrane of the tongue.The modified fragment can protrude over the tongue, its surface, as a rule, smooth.
There are such forms of diamond-shaped glossitis:
With a smooth( flat) shape, the affected area does not rise above the mucous membrane of the tongue.Its surface is smooth, red, shiny, as if adjusted.
With a tuberous form on the altered area there are flat tubercles of various sizes separated from each other by folds.This arrangement resembles a cobblestone pavement.
When the papillomatous form appears papilliform proliferation, protruding above the level of the tongue.Papillomatous growths have a wide base, flattened peaks, painted in a pale pink color.
The rhomboid glossitis can flow absolutely without any subjective sensations, or bother with burning, pain in the tongue, dry mouth.
Is a congenital anomaly, not a consequence of inflammation.The disease is characterized by the presence of longitudinal folds on the surface of the tongue.The most pronounced longitudinal fold, passing along the median line of the tongue.Less pronounced transverse folds leave it.Folded tongue resembles the skin of the scrotum, so the ailment is also called scrotal( scrotum) tongue.With inadequate hygiene of the oral cavity the remains of food accumulate in the folds, because of this an unpleasant smell appears.
This anomaly often does not cause uncomfortable sensations.However, when the reactivity of the organism decreases in the folds, bacteria, yeast-like fungi, can multiply.This subsequently leads to the development of inflammatory glossitis.In this case, there are symptoms such as burning tongue, sensitivity to irritants.
Atrophic glossitis develops due to the reduction or complete disappearance of all kinds of papillae of the tongue.It is accompanied by the appearance of a bright red, smooth spot on the entire surface of the tongue.The atrophic process can be focal or total, with the defeat of the entire language.Sometimes as a result of atrophy, the language decreases.
Atrophic glossitis develops in infectious diseases( gonorrhea, syphilis, herpes, candidiasis), hypovitaminosis E, A. In this disease patients complain of burning sensation in the mouth, sensitivity to irritating food, dry mouth.
In case of folic acid deficiency and B12 deficiency anemia, a pathological condition called Hunter's language develops.At its core, the disease is a kind of atrophic glossitis.With this pathology, the surface of the tongue becomes smoothed with atrophied papillae.The color of the tongue is bright crimson, it shines like polished.
Treatment of glossitis
In the presence of glossitis, it is necessary to determine the cause of this condition and to work on it: cure anemia, diseases of the digestive tract, infections, etc.With inflammatory glossitis, antimycotics( Fluconazole, Nystatin), antiviral( Acyclovir), antibacterial( Macrolides, Cephalosporins) drugs are prescribed.
Showing mouth rinsing with antiseptic solutions: Furacilin, Chlorhexidine.If glossitis is accompanied by a marked pain syndrome - appoint applications with anesthetics( solutions of Trimekaina, pyromecaine).
Fibrin plaque should be removed with cotton swabs previously moistened with Trypsin, Chymotrypsin.After the procedure, it is necessary to rinse the mouth with antiseptic solutions.To regenerate ulcerative defects appoint applications with Solcoseryl, vitamin A, sea-buckthorn oil and dogrose.
In the case of hairy glossitis, the tongue is lubricated with keratolytic agents( resorcinol solutions, salicylic alcohol).In addition, the removal of enlarged papillae can be performed with the help of cryodestruction.
To eat with glossitis you need a soft, frayed food, comfortable temperature.We must not forget that hot, cold, sour, spicy food is an irritant and intensifies the painful sensations.
Grigorova Valeria, medical reviewer