Mushroom poisoning: signs and first aid
Mar 27, 2018
Poisoning with fungi is a frequent occurrence: according to statistics, 4% of all poisonings occur precisely because of the consumption of poisonous or conditionally edible and improperly prepared mushrooms.The poisoning considered is considered dangerous for human life, and health after such impact on the body will be undermined.
To avoid poisoning with mushrooms, you need not only to know their species, but also be able to distinguish conditionally edible mushrooms, be able to properly prepare them, remember the rules for collecting mushrooms and be able to provide first aid in case of symptoms of poisoning.Table of contents:
Species of fungi and their features
There is a clear classification of fungi that is accepted all over the world.
These are those mushrooms that are definitely edible and do not need any specific treatment before final preparation. Such mushrooms include:
- white fungus;
- birch bark;
- chanterelles and many others.
Conditionally edible fungi
This species includes representatives of the mushroom kingdom, from the flesh of which milky juice is released - it has a burning taste and can lead to poisoning.Such conditionally edible mushrooms need specific preparation before final preparation. The mushrooms in question are:
- freckles and others.
As a rule, under the specific treatment of conditionally edible fungi is meant prolonged soaking in salt water, a long rinse under running water, pre-cooking with repeated draining of the broth.This all helps wash the fungi from the toxins.
Toxic / inedible fungi
These fungi are so toxic that even with a small number of people dying - in many cases( almost 98%) even modern medicine is powerless.
Poisonous mushrooms can not be neutralized in any way - neither prolonged cooking, nor rinsing under running water, nor soaking in saline solution yields results.But if a small piece of a poisonous mushroom falls into a common dish with edible mushrooms, then poisoning is guaranteed.
Inedible mushrooms include:
- pale toadstool;
- fly agarics;
- bile fungus;
- false chanterelles;
- false firearms and many others.
Note: the degree of toxicity / toxicity of some fungi has not yet been established.For example, this refers to lines and false honey agarics - the toxins present in them are presented in different amounts, so experts do not recommend eating them, despite the fact that in many sources this kind of fungus is indicated as conditionally edible.
What happens when you poison with mushrooms
If a person consumes inedible or conditionally edible, but not treated properly, the fungus, then the toxins immediately enter the bloodstream and spread throughout the body.In this case, various organs and systems are affected.
There is a group of fungi whose toxins affect, above all, the mucous membrane - doctors say that the fungi have gastroenterotrophic action of .Such poisoning will be manifested primarily by digestive disorders.But there is a group of poisonous mushrooms that do not have a negative effect on the mucosa of the digestive system, but affect the liver and kidneys - the so-called has a hepatonephrotoxic effect of .These same fungi can affect the central nervous system and the heart, but to a much lesser extent.The most striking example of a poisonous fungus with a hepatonephrotoxic effect is a pallid grebe.
Symptoms of mushroom poisoning
The signs of the condition in question are variable - it all depends on what specifically inedible or conditionally edible fungus was used and in what quantity. But there are a number of common symptoms of mushroom poisoning:
- abdominal pain that is of varying severity;
- persistent nausea;
- vomit, which can not be stopped and does not bring any relief to the victim;
- stool up to 25 times a day( diarrhea).
Please note: indomitable vomiting and persistent diarrhea often leads to dehydration - patients die even at the prehospital stage, especially if seeking medical help was not timely.
The specific manifestation of these or other symptoms depends only on what toxin entered the body, that is, what poisonous mushrooms were used for food.
This toxin enters the body with the use of a spring and / or pale toadstool, stinky fly agaric.Their tissues contain phalloidin, which begins to exert a destructive effect on the liver cells within a few minutes after ingestion.The first symptoms of fungal poisoning begin to appear in 6-24 hours, and in some cases only on the second day.
Symptoms of phalloidin poisoning:
- intense abdominal pain;
- increased sweating;
- indomitable vomiting;
- uninterrupted diarrhea;
- lowered body temperature.
Note: phalloidin poisoning refers to one of the most severe, so most often the patient develops renal and hepatic impairment, coma and death occur.
Poisoning with the toxin in question, in 70% of cases, results in a lethal outcome for the victim.Treatment is possible only with timely diagnosis( before the emergence of a pronounced symptomatology), but even if the patient remains alive, severe, complex pathologies of the liver and kidneys develop.
This toxin is found in mushrooms such as mountain cobwebs, a fleshy reddish umbrella.The ingestion of orllanin into the body is considered deadly, and the main problem is that the toxin effect on the internal organs and body systems is for a long time in a latent mode - the first symptoms may appear in a few days, and in some cases even after several weeksPoisonous mushrooms.
Symptoms of tollanin poisoning:
- is a tireless thirst;
- permanent intense headache;
- pain in kidney and abdomen;
- a constantly present feeling of cold in the lower and / or upper limbs.
Most often, the death of a victim is associated with acute renal failure, which is diagnosed late, develops rapidly and does not lend itself even to restraint therapy.
As a rule, poisoning with orlanlanin is rarely diagnosed, as the fungi containing this toxin are extremely rarely in the basket to the mushroom picker.
Poisoning with red and panther fly agarics
These fungi have a distinctive feature - when poisoning, the toxins contained in them, primarily affect the central nervous system - the victim develops visual, voice, tactile hallucinations, there is delirium, hysteria can develop without reason.
There is one "advantage" in the poisoning of the particular species of poisonous fungi: first the digestive system of the patient is affected and the first symptoms will be:
- indomitable vomiting;
- is an uncontrolled diarrhea;
- profuse sweating;
- slow heart rate;
- intense abdominal pain.
Due to the appearance of the first symptoms of digestive system disorders, and after a while and the central nervous system, the victim can be provided with effective medical care.As a rule, it consists of a full washing of the stomach and intestines, and then the doctors administer to him medicines that can support and stabilize the work of the heart and central nervous system.
This poison is also contained in fly agarics, but always in combination with other toxins.There are mushrooms in which muscarine is available in a "pure" form - this, for example, govorushki and fiber( not in all, but only in some species). Symptoms when the toxin enters the body will manifest after 2 hours and will be as follows:
- increased salivation and sweating;
- nausea and vomiting;
- a slight narrowing of the pupils.
Note: if muscarinic poisoning occurs in severe form( for example, a large quantity of toxin enters the body), the patient may develop pulmonary edema, severe breathing disorder will be present.
Poisoning with helvellus fungi
This type of mushroom includes morels and stitches.Many sources indicate them as conditionally edible, but experts categorically do not recommend them to eat - you need to know the specifics of their preparation and not make a mistake in observing the procedure.
Symptoms of poisoning with helvella fungi:
- develops jaundice;
- in the blood, the amount of hemoglobin is dramatically increased;
- severe drowsiness;
- vomiting and diarrhea.
If the poisoning is severe( for example, a large number of these fungi were consumed at the same time), the patient has intense convulsions, then comes a coma, which in 98% of cases ends in a lethal outcome.
Poisoning by hallucinogenic fungi
People know that fly agarics can have a hallucinogenic effect, but in reality there are many more such fungi.The most studied species is Psilotsibe - these mushrooms do not even look like edible, so they rarely get into the basket of a mushroom picker.
Nevertheless, in medicine, the following symptoms of hallucinogenic fungal poisoning are distinguished:
- a rapid drop in blood pressure;
- dilated pupils;
- feeling of intoxication;
- severe fatigue and drowsiness.
If at this stage the victim does not receive medical care, the symptoms become more intense:
- severe psychosis with hallucinations;
- distortion of the idea of time and the environment;
- depressive states;
- suicide attempts.
The dung is a type of conditionally inedible mushroom - in principle, it can be eaten.Its toxic effect of the dung is only if the fungus was consumed simultaneously with alcoholic beverages, or alcohol was consumed after 1-2 days.
There is an opinion that the dung contains poisons that do not dissolve in water, but in alcohol they dissolve quickly and spread through the body with blood.
Symptoms of poisoning with dung:
- the face is red;
- there is an anxious state of the victim( unreasonable);
- pulse slows down;
- severe pain in the intestines.
Gastrointestinal Intestinal Disorders
This poisoning can occur with the use of conventionally poisonous fungi after incorrect heat treatment, or with the use of fungi after the wrong method of storage.
Symptoms of gastrointestinal poisoning occur 1-2 hours after ingestion of fungi and can be presented in the following variants:
- vomiting and nausea;
- irrepressible diarrhea;
- sensation of heat and fever;
- convulsions and loss of consciousness - rarely.
Note: usually has such symptoms for 2-3 days, but very severe gastrointestinal fungal poisoning occurs in the elderly and in childhood.
Mushrooms that are capable of accumulating toxins
Recently, poisoning with completely edible fungi has been observed more often - this is due to the fact that they accumulate toxins from the external environment. There are several types of such fungi:
- oyster mushroom, honey agarics, raincoat, mushrooms, mushroom umbrella variegated - weakly accumulating;
- gray-haired serow, poderezozovik, chanterelle ordinary, boletus, white fungus - medium-accumulating;
- greengrass, russula, headworms - strongly accumulating;
- svinushka, oily, bitter, Polish mushroom, moss - accumulators of toxins.
Doctors categorically do not recommend picking mushrooms along roads, in close proximity to industrial enterprises and big cities, in garbage dumps.Of course, you can reduce the amount of accumulated toxins by digesting the collected fungi in acidified water( with the addition of citric or acetic acid), soaking in a saline solution for a day or more, but the risk of poisoning still remains.
Errors of mushroom pickers
Many people believe that it is enough to know some signs of the difference between poisonous mushrooms and edible to avoid poisoning.All such "signs" by experts are recognized as false and do not reduce the risk of poisoning.
False signs and their exposures:
- Poisonous mushrooms are characterized by an unpleasant odor - a pale toadstool, for example, differs in a fragrance similar to the smell of champignons.
- Insect larvae never live in mushrooms( worms) - a misconception, because the toxins of fungi do not act on such organisms.
- Any young fungus is edible - not true, because pale toadstool, for example, at any age is deadly to humans.
- If a silver object is tossed in a mushroom broth, its blackening will indicate the presence of poisonous mushrooms - a delusion, silver will darken even in the decoction of edible mushrooms.
- The head of onions acquires a brown color in the broth with poisonous mushrooms - it's not true, it changes color in any mushroom broth.
- If you throw a mushroom in milk, and it quickly sour, it means that the poisonous mushroom is a delusion.
Do not ever trust advice and signs against poisonous mushrooms!Such frivolity increases the risk of possible fungal poisoning to the maximum.Experts recommend to collect only known fungi, otherwise it is better to refuse "quiet hunting" altogether.
First aid for poisoning with mushrooms
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If the first symptoms of the condition appeared and it is known that mushrooms were eaten the day before, you should immediately call an ambulance team - no folk remedies in this caseWill not help.
Before going to doctors, it is recommended that:
- Rinse the affected person with a stomach - let him drink plenty of water, even if he has vomiting, you can not stop the rinsing, as you need to maximize the purification of the stomach.
- If there is no diarrhea, the patient should be given any medicine with a laxative effect.
- Give the affected person a large dose of sorbents - at least 50 grams for an adult.
- To the feet and on the stomach of the patient it is necessary to apply heat - this will prevent the violation of blood circulation.
- Give the patient strong sweet tea.
Doctors will necessarily hospitalize the patient, collect the remains of the mushroom dish( if available) for laboratory testing for the amount and type of toxins and continue the treatment activities.
Poisoning by mushrooms is a dangerous condition, which in most cases leads to the death of the victim.To avoid such a situation, you need to carefully collect mushrooms, refusing dubious or unknown - even if you see a mushroom in the picture / photos, you should not collect it - it is possible that you are a false type.In addition, you can not buy mushrooms and conservation from them "from grandmothers" along the road, collect mushrooms in ecologically dirty areas.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category