Polycystic kidney: symptoms, treatment and diet
Mar 27, 2018
Polycystic kidney is a disease of genetic etiology and is manifested by the appearance in the tissues of one or both kidneys of a large number of cysts.As a result of the gradual filling in these cysts of the contents of the filtered plasma, they gradually increase in volume with the compression of normal, unchanged kidney tissues.As a result, their functionality is weakened, which is manifested by appropriate clinical changes.Table of contents: Causes of polycystic kidneys Stages of polycystic kidneys Surveys with suspicion of polycystic kidney Treatment of various forms and stages of polycystosis of the kidneys
The causes of polycystic kidneys
The main causes of this pathology is a genetic factor.There are cases of both recessive and dominant inheritance.It is worth noting that the last inheritance is found in families where both parents are ill with these diseases.The symptoms of polycystosis are more pronounced and appear earlier.Along with hereditary forms of the disease, cases of the disease associated with the nephrotoxic effect of medications taken during pregnancy are observed.
The stages of polycystic kidney
With the course of polycystic kidneys, the following steps are identified for convenience:
- Asymptomatic or preclinical.Its main characteristic is the absence in general of any changes in the state of health, as well as in laboratory analyzes.This is the stage of full compensation of kidney function and in fact a person is healthy.The diagnosis at this stage is associated with an ultrasound examination or other types of instrumental examination, in which kidneys with cysts are found.
- The stage of laboratory changes.Some authors combine the first two stages into one.Nevertheless, at this stage, it is possible to suspect polycystic kidney disease by a certain decrease in their functionality when carrying out laboratory stress tests.But since it is impossible to determine the diagnosis of polycystosis on the basis of some of these samples( a doctor with experience can only suspect), then instrumental methods of examination - the most common and safe, as well as informative - ultrasound are needed for his verification or confirmation.
Important! The above stages occur in "polycystosis of an adult type", when the number of cysts is small and there is a significant percentage of healthy kidney tissue.
- Compensated clinical changes.Basically, these are frequent infectious diseases of the kidneys and urinary tracts - pyelonephritis.In addition, polycystic kidney disease is characterized by the prevalence of general symptoms, such as: headaches, decreased performance, increased fatigue.At laboratory researches the signs of an inflammation of a renal tissue with decrease in functional possibilities of kidneys are found out.Therapeutic regimens allow to achieve significant improvement in the human condition.
- Decompensated disease.It is in fact classical and manifested by a combination of "renal complaints" and general intoxication of the body.There is a constant exacerbation of inflammatory diseases of the kidneys, which can not be treated with antibiotics.The emergence of persistent arterial hypertension with a crisis current and low efficacy of antihypertensive drugs.From the manifestations of intoxication with polycystic kidney in this stage - headache, persistent nausea and frequent vomiting.These patients are suffering from insomnia, they are almost always in bed because of rapid fatigue, which is further increased due to severe anemia.Intensive treatment activities help to cope with decompensation for a certain period of time.
- Terminal stage.At its core is a kidney failure and occurs against the backdrop of lack of treatment with a constant progression of the disease.Especially it is characteristic for "polycystic children type", in children from parents with the same disease.The combination of severe heredity, rapid progression of the disease and adequate medical examination and care very quickly lead the patient to complete dependence on an event such as hemodialysis or an artificial kidney.The prognosis is unfavorable in some cases, but in others people live on "artificial kidneys" for many decades.
Surveys for suspected polycystic kidney disease
To establish the diagnosis of polycystic kidney disease and to determine the type of disease in modern medicine use a huge arsenal of informative methods and tools, among them:
- Study of the heredity of parents and genetic counseling.
- Carrying out ultrasonic diagnostics( ultrasound) of the fetus several times for pregnancy, with an exponential date starting from the 30th week.
- Conduction of ultrasound for a newborn on a systemic basis, as well as a child aged 1 year.If necessary, carry out control studies with an assessment of the results in dynamics.
- Laboratory diagnosis still plays a more significant role in the period of the kinetic manifestations to assess the functionality of the kidneys.
- Conducting such instrumental methods as X-ray secretory urography( the introduction of a special substance into the vein and evaluation of its isolation by the kidneys in a series of X-ray images), computed tomography, and more costly MRI and PET are used to clearly visualize the cystsOperation, as well as in preparation for operational intervention in order to choose the tactics and scope of the planned operation.
Treatment of various forms and stages of polycystic kidneys
Depending on the specific form of polycystosis of the kidneys, as well as the stage of the disease development, a particular patient uses certain, optimal medical measures.
Treatment of polycystosis "adult type" with unilateral renal damage
The most favorable course and outcome - in polycystosis "adult type" with unilateral renal damage.In this clinical situation, the disease can be detected by chance with a general ultrasound examination and does not require any medication because of its compensation.The presence of inflammatory changes in the cyst requires general measures of the corresponding manifestation of manifestations.
Usually for the treatment of such polycystic kidney appoint antibiotic therapy in combination with anti-inflammatory drugs, mild diuretics.Well-fitting drugs and vitamins are good.In combination with diet, lifestyle correction, such treatment can reliably avoid exacerbation of the disease.
Treatment of adult-type polycystosis with bilateral renal damage
An adult-type polycystosis with bilateral lesions and a small number of cysts on each of the kidneys - an average of 22 to 50 cysts.Both the course and the forecast depend on the incidence of inflammatory complications and the rate of increase in the volume of cysts.
A wide range of medical products is used for treatment.The most effective detoxification therapy with anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics.
In a number of cases, the "artificial kidney" device is used to increase the effectiveness of therapeutic measures.Common restorative measures, vitamin therapy and the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle become dominant in the period of remission and are aimed at reducing the frequency and duration of periods of exacerbation of the disease.
Treatment of polycystosis "pediatric type" with multiple cysts on both kidneys
"Children's type" polycystosis with multiple cysts on both kidneys is the most difficult for therapy.A significant number of cysts and small volumes of normally functioning renal tissue, the amount of which is steadily decreasing, eventually lead to an early emerging clinic in the form of decompensation of the disease, as well as pronounced manifestations requiring similarly effective measures.
The main place in the treatment of this form of polycystic kidney is detoxification therapy and measures that support remission, which in this case is called "medical remission".This emphasizes the dependence of a person's state on the constant intake of certain drugs.For this form of the disease, the "artificial kidney" apparatus plays a special role, which often becomes vitally important for patients.
What is an "artificial kidney"
The device "artificial kidney" for a simplified understanding is a complex system of various types of filters, which by their work imitate the function of the kidneys of man.The device is built into the human circulatory system and cleans the blood plasma from various types of toxins and returns the purified blood to the body.The procedure requires frequent constant recurrence because of the accumulation of not only toxins, but also metabolic products of other tissues.
The need and effectiveness of surgical methods for the treatment of polycystic kidney
In the treatment of polycystic kidney, various types of surgical interventions are used that can be both radical and palliative:
- Radical excision( excision) of cysts -A small number of cysts, both on one and on both kidneys.At the same time, a high enough percentage of normally functioning renal tissue is a prerequisite for this type of intervention, which is confirmed before the operation with the help of laboratory and instrumental methods of examination.The results of such interventions are favorable.
- Palliative resection of individual cysts - this method of treatment of polycystic kidney is used mainly in the occurrence of such a serious, but fortunately, rather rare complication, such as suppuration of the contents of the cyst.This type of surgical intervention allows to avoid further development of purulent complications from the kidneys, while the course of the main disease - polycystic is not particularly affected, since most often this kind of complications occur in severe disease in weakened patients with reduced immunity.
- Resection of polycystic kidney removed.It is carried out in situations with a one-sided form of the disease, when one of the kidneys simply does not function due to the abundance of cysts.This allows us to achieve the normalization of the patient's condition due to the absence of exacerbations and to avoid the occurrence of purulent and other types of complications on the diseased kidney.It should be noted that in a pure form, the removal of the kidney is used comparatively rarely, most often it is a preparatory stage for another type of surgical intervention.
- Transplantation or transplantation of a healthy donor kidney.Performed according to all the rules of transplantology - it can provide the body with a complete kidney functionally and anatomically.The complete engraftment of the donor kidney ensures a cure of the patient.In the future, the person carries out all the necessary recommendations for strengthening the general condition, and also undergoes therapy from the transplantologist.
Polycystic kidney disease is not a verdict!
In situations where you or your relatives have been exposed to a preliminary diagnosis of polycystic kidney disease, do not despair.The main thing that needs to be done is contact a urologist or nephrologist.Then undergo a full examination under the guidance of a specialist doctor.He assesses and interprets the data of the survey you are conducting and gives you a full diagnosis.Advances in medicine at the present stage can achieve qualitative remissions and compensations for even serious forms of the disease, provided that the prescribed treatment is adequate and correct.
Remember! In any case, try not to evaluate the results of the survey yourself and especially not to self-medicate, even relying on medical knowledge.This is fraught with the progression of the disease and the occurrence of complications from other organs and systems.Address to experts and be healthy.
Doctor therapist, Sovinskaya Elena Nikolaevna.