Signs, consequences of LSD use, drug treatment
LSD( LSD) is a semisynthetic substance( lysergic acid diethylamide) with a pronounced psychoactive property.When used, it can change the processes of perception of reality, distort the consciousness of people.Effects received by a person are difficult to predict.This is one of the unusual properties of LSD, which distinguishes it from other psychedelic drugs.It is thanks to this feature that this substance is often used by adepts of transcendental sects practicing meditation.Contents: Table of contents: History of the appearance of LSD Properties and forms of LSD Pharmacological mechanism of action Narcotic effect of LSD Consequences of LSD reception Interaction with drug groups Treatment and rehabilitation of patients suffering from dependence on LSD Forecast
History of the appearance of LSD
In 1938 the Swiss scientist AHoffman conducted experiments to create a drug from ergot, which resulted in a new drug.Having studied the properties of the new substance, it was literally immediately considered hopeless and stopped further research.To new experiments, Hoffmann returned only in 1943.During one of such experiments, the scientist accidentally took a small dose of the drug and felt a powerful mental experience.This was the discovery of LSD as a drug.
Noting the similarity of the symptoms of schizophrenic syndrome with the manifestations of LSD action, scientists began studies designed to understand the nature of schizophrenia.However, experiments involving animals and humans proved fruitless.Somewhat later( in the 50s-60s of the last century) LSD tried to treat alcoholism and mental illness, but again it was in vain.
In 1951, the drug was interested in the CIA, and the study of the properties of LSD began to attract volunteers, mainly - university students.In 1960, another project on the study of psychedelic substances with the participation of students was opened within the framework of Harvard University. These experiments, which introduced young people to a new powerful drug, led to the fact that LSD-mania literally overwhelmed the younger generation.Especially often it was used by representatives of various subcultures( New Age , hippies, etc.), sects.
The widespread popularity of this psychoactive substance has caused numerous international scandals in the , which did not lead to a ban on the use of LSD and veto on the scientific research of this substance .In Russia, the "peak" of popularity of psychedelics occurred in the 80s.
Today, the Albert Hofmann Foundation and international organizations such as the MAPS( Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies) and the Beckley Foundation continue research in this direction.
Properties and Forms of LSD
The natural material for production is parasitic ergot( marsupial fungus) that infects cereals.From it is synthesized lysergic acid, which is a source of LSD. The dose of this psychedelic, which is necessary to obtain basic drug effects, is extremely low in relation to other drugs.This feature served as a reason for the wide spread of the substance by smuggling methods.
Production of the main drug was established in a network of illegal laboratories.
LSD was issued as:
- drops for application to sugar, paper strips, powders in capsule form;
- gelatinous pyramids;
- tablets( with a dose of 20, up to 500 μg);
- paper and carton squares, pre-impregnated with the product( brand);
- other artisanal forms.
Pharmacological mechanism of action
The average duration of narcotic effects of LSD per person can reach 12 hours .The first signs of action develop after 30 minutes.According to some drug addicts, they observed psychedelic phenomena within a few days after admission.Scientific evidence suggests that the peak of the action of LSD occurs, 1-2 hours after admission.During the next 3-5 hours a person is in the "plateau" stage, after which there is a gradual decline in the narcotic effect.
The mechanism of action on the brain is under study.Scientists have put forward on this occasion several hypotheses, according to which LSD is an analog of serotonin( a neurotransmitter). By integrating into the process of impulse transmission, replacing serotonin, a narcotic substance changes the structure of physiological and psychological processes in the brain.There is evidence of stimulation by the drug of synthesis of glutamic acid in the brain tissue, which leads to effects similar to the effects of cocaine, nicotine, morphine and other drugs.
Narcotic effect of LSD
The action of this drug provides a very diverse experience.Clinic of mental changes may differ depending on the dose received by the patient, on the characteristics of the character, temperament, mood, environment.Of great importance is the previous experience of narcotization, age, and physical state variants.
Some people do not feel any changes in the use of high doses of LSD at all .In the environment of consumers of this drug, its action is called "trip ".
The emotional direction of the effects depends on the environment.With a favorable "climate", the person who took the drug is at the mercy of positive experiences, and, conversely - under the influence of a negative environment, negative effects occur.
The peculiarity of LSD trip is its long-lasting effect, after complete removal of the drug from the body.Most clearly, this phenomenon is observed in emotional effects. A person taking a drug can change the personality structure, fundamental and established attitude to events, other people.
The most common forms of psychoactive LSD:
- condensation and excessive amplification of color gamut of the surrounding world;
- external objects and objects begin to "come to life"( breathe, shimmer, move slowly and distort in proportions, blur with spectacular patterns);
- visions continue after closing eyes;
- sense of time often slows down;
- a person depersonalizes, ceases to treat himself as to his own person, there is the effect of "seeing oneself from the side", experiencing his own metamorphosis( degeneration);
- there is a feeling of dissolution of the body and soul in the external world;
- memory disorders develop, inadequate understanding of the past, present and self-identification;
- some people start to feel themselves not at all who they really are.
These effects are directly used by adherents of religious cults and sects, especially - the destructive orientation of .
Note: Along with the psychedelic picture, the person taking LSD has physiological and pathophysiological reactions.
The most common can be identified:
- fluctuations in body temperature;
- cramping abdominal pain;
- chills with goosebumps;
- different types of arrhythmia;
- gnashing of teeth( bruxism);
- increased flow and salivation( hyperhidrosis, hypersalivation);
- when examined, enlarged pupils( mydriasis);
- attacks of nausea and vomiting;
- spasms and convulsive twitching;
- sleep and appetite disorders;
- strengthening of tendon reflexes;
- impaired sensitivity( sensation of skin-crawling insects, tingling, numbness, etc.).
Consequences of taking LSD
Physical dependence on this drug does not develop.But this does not mean that you can safely use it for the pleasure of .Let's try to understand the negative effects of narcotization LSD.
After several "sessions" of taking the drug in humans, there is a desire to repeat the sensations received against the background of "intoxication".Gradually formed a pronounced mental dependence. And the patients developing depression on the background of a lack of drugs and other "troubles" begin to take tranquilizers, ephedra and other medications.The meaning of life is increasingly seen in the search for a regular dose of LSD.
Abstinence for 4-5 days leads to a pronounced desire to plunge into the world of dreams again.Over time, scary visions appear in the picture of LSD effects.Patients begin to fear them, but dependence makes one resort to the drug again and again.Some patients experience fear and try to escape from LSD by taking alcohol, other narcotic drugs.Forms of polydrug use( substance abuse).
The most pronounced are:
- Loss of understanding of the surrounding reality, depersonalization, which lasts with small "light" gaps.
- Progress of "hidden" deviations of the psyche.Some people have schizophrenic syndromes, epileptic seizures;Psychoses develop.
- Manifestations of "flashbacks", that is, sudden returns of mental and pathophysiological manifestations of the action of LSD, after long periods of time, already against the background of a drug withdrawn from the body.These effects are due to a profound change in the mental functions of the brain, although they can not be related to anatomical damage to nerve cells.Flashbacks can provoke strong experiences, acute diseases of any origin.
Important: LSD does not cause damage to organs and tissues.All the negative effects of this compound are affected only by mental changes.
The substance does not exhibit significant toxicity.That is why an overdose of LSD is a rare phenomenon for medicine.The statistical documents do not record any fatal outcome from taking an excessive dose of the drug.
Interaction with Drug Groups
There are few written works in this field.Most researchers write about reducing the manifestations of the effect of LSD with the simultaneous use of antidepressants.
The only exception is the MAO inhibitors.These medicines are able to change and strengthen the structure of the manifestation of the psychic effects of LSD.
Potentiating action occurs in combination with nairoleptics.But sometimes there is a reverse effect.
Treatment and rehabilitation of patients suffering from LSD dependence
Disposal of people who take LSD for a long time is carried out in narcological clinics, hospitals, rehabilitation centers. Detoxification therapy is not needed in this case, since there is no physical dependence on this substance.Consequently, there is no abstinent syndrome - "withdrawal".
Specialists have to focus their efforts on combating mental craving. As we have seen, all the sensations of taking LSD are in the psyche.That is why the deviations that give this kind of dependence are most effectively amenable to psychotherapy.
At the very beginning of treatment it is important to provide the drug addict with motivation to live without the use of any drugs that can give psychotic changes.
Note: The mood for a healthy lifestyle is extremely necessary, since without it many patients who have a long addiction to LSD, after a while, return to dependence.Often they switch to the consumption of more "heavy" drugs of opium and other groups.
Psychotherapy in the treatment of dependence on LSD includes:
- motivational conversations and persuasion methods, both individual and group;
- suggestion, which is carried out on a conscious level at the time of wakefulness and when using hypnosis;
- training in self-control, management of your mental and physiological reactions using auto-training;
- authoring the development of psychotherapeutic effects, encodings.
The treatment of LSD addiction in rehabilitation centers is very effective, along with narcologists, psychiatrists, psychotherapists, psychologists, rehabilitation specialists and sociologists, the patients themselves take a direct part in the recovery period.The positive example of the recovering people who are nearby, provides powerful support in the desire to get rid of addiction.
Correctly organized step-by-step treatment process, the person's mood for a healthy lifestyle, help from relatives and relatives, psychoprophylaxis, lifestyle changes, can achieve good remission and gradual elimination of drug dependence.
Alexander Lotin, medical reviewer