Parathyroid adenoma: symptoms, treatment and prognosis
Parathyroid adenoma is a neoplastic benign neoplasm localized in the parathyroid region.This pathology violates the human hormonal background and occurs quite often.Table of contents: Characteristics of the disease What does it occur from?How does the pathology manifest itself?What is the danger?Diagnostic methods Medical treatment of parathyroid adenoma Operation with parathyroid adenoma About prevention
Characteristics of the disease
Parathyroid adenoma, as a rule, is one-sided.In appearance, the tumor resembles a nodule neoplasm.Pathology is accompanied by overly active production of parathyroid hormone, which leads to disorders of the processes of calcium and phosphorus metabolism.
Note: According to statistical data, in most cases adenomas of the parathyroid gland are exposed to the fair sex, in the age category up to 40 years.
In most cases, the nature of this tumor is benign.Cases of malignant degeneration are not more than 2%.
Where does it come from?
The exact causes of parathyroid adenoma have not been established to date.According to experts, calcium deficiency can cause this pathology, causing intensive division and mutation of thyroid cells, as well as changes in protein cells.
The following factors can lead to the appearance of parathyroid adenoma:
- traumatic injuries;
- radiation exposure;
- hormonal disorders;
- thyroid dysfunction;
- is an unfavorable environmental factor.
- genetic predisposition;
- cell mutations.
Important! Radiation therapy for malignant neoplasms localized in the head or neck region, significantly increases the likelihood of parathyroid adenoma formation!
How does the pathology manifest itself?
The symptomatology of the disease begins to manifest itself more vividly with the increase in the size of the neoplasm.At the early stages of its development, the pathological process, as a rule, proceeds practically asymptomatically.
In general, the following clinical signs and manifestations are typical for parathyroid adenoma:
- excessive sweating;
- drowsiness during the day;
- increased heart rate( tachycardia);
- increased fatigue;
- enlargement of the thyroid gland;
- increased skin moisture;
- increased anxiety;
- joint pain;
- appearance of a specific hoarseness in the voice;
- mental disorders.
Important! This pathology, in most cases, is accompanied by hyperparathyroidism, therefore, patients usually have symptomatology, characteristic for this disease.
Often in patients with parathyroid adenoma it is noted:
- permanent lack of appetite,
- general weakness,
- nausea and vomiting.
Memory disorders, manifestations of convulsive syndrome and emotional instability are also possible!
Disturbances of calcium and phosphorus metabolism lead to destructive effects of bone tissue.Therefore, in the late stages of the pathological process, patients begin to break down their teeth, an increased tendency to fracture appears, and osteoporosis develops.
What is the danger?
Parathyroid adenoma, as it develops, adversely affects the entire body of the patient, significantly reducing the quality of life.
The fact is that with this pathology the concentration of calcium values in the patient's blood increases substantially, which is one of the causes of strokes, heart attacks, and also cancer.
Important! Although parathyroid adenoma itself is not considered to be a deadly disease, this pathology often leads to the death of the patient due to the development of concomitant complications!
The most common typical complication of parathyroid adenoma is hypercalcemia, leading to the development of the following dangerous pathologies:
- renal failure occurring in acute form;
- myocardial infarction;
- urolithic pathology;
- impaired renal function.
In the absence of adequate, timely medical care, the likelihood of a hypercalcemic crisis increases.
This pathological condition carries a risk not only for health, but also for the life of the patient and is accompanied by the following clinical manifestations:
- impaired consciousness;
- attacks of profuse vomiting;
- disorders in the work of the cardiovascular system;
- internal, intestinal and gastric bleeding.
Important ! If the hypercalcemia crisis does not provide the patient with emergency medical care, the most likely outcome is lethal!
In addition, parathyroid adenoma negatively affects the nervous system of the patient, causing the development of severe, prolonged depressive conditions.
The gastrointestinal form of this disease repeatedly increases the risks of the following disorders in the digestive system:
- ulcerative lesion of the gastrointestinal tract.
Thus, parathyroid adenoma can safely be considered one of the most dangerous ailments requiring extremely careful attention.Therefore, when the first clinical signs characteristic of this pathology appear, one should, without delay, seek help from an endocrinologist, undergo comprehensive diagnostics and an adequate medical course!
In the diagnosis of parathyroid adenoma, in addition to examining the patient, studying the clinical picture and the results obtained during the collection of anamnesis, the patients are assigned the following types of research procedures:
- taking biopsies of the cervical lymph nodes;
- blood test for the detection of calcium;
- laboratory analysis of urine.
Important! Physicians refer to computer or magnetic resonance imaging as the most accurate and informative methods for diagnosing parathyroid adenoma.
After such a comprehensive diagnosis, the specialist can make an accurate diagnosis, determine the stage of the pathological process and develop the optimal treatment tactics for the patient.
Medical treatment of parathyroid adenoma
If the disease is not in an advanced stage, doctors in the fight against parathyroid adenoma prefer conservative therapy.
Note: The main goal of the treatment course is to reduce the calcium concentration and eliminate the characteristic symptoms!
For the normalization of the general condition, the patient is assigned a dropper with an infusion of the following preparations:
- isotonic solutions;
- forced diuresis;
- solution of glucose.
In case of damage to the internal organs and disruption of various body systems, the patient undergoes the necessary symptomatic treatment according to the individual scheme.Diet is mandatory, according to which, in the daily diet of a patient with a diagnosed parathyroid gland adenoma, there should be no food containing phosphorus.The basis of the menu is low-fat varieties of meat and fish, greens, fruits, fresh vegetables.
The following products are also useful for the patient:
- mushrooms( especially chanterelles).
Important! Carrying out of medicinal treatment and diet therapy is an obligatory element of preparation of a patient with parathyroid adenoma for surgical intervention!
Operation for parathyroid adenoma
Removal of parathyroid adenoma is by far the most effective way to combat this pathology.It allows to achieve stable positive results, even in the most severe, neglected clinical cases.
Important! Temporary contraindication for operations in the parathyroid gland region is infectious processes, a period of exacerbation of diseases that occur in chronic form.
Depending on the complexity of the clinical case and the individual characteristics of the individual patient, specialists in the fight against parathyroid adenoma use one of the following surgical procedures:
- Thyroidectomy surgery aimed at complete removal of the thyroid gland.
- Subtotal intervention - surgical removal of a small area of the affected thyroid gland.
- Removing the isthmus.
- A hemithyroidectomy is an operation aimed at removing one lobe of the thyroid gland.
Surgical intervention in the area of parathyroid glands is performed under the influence of general anesthesia.The average duration of the operation is about 3 hours.
The recovery period, namely its duration, largely depends on the type of surgical intervention.
After parathyroid surgery, the patient should be under the supervision of a specialist, since there are risks of developing the following complications:
- scar formation;
- infectious processes;
- disorders of speech and respiratory functions.
Modern equipment and thorough preparation of the patient for surgical procedures can significantly reduce, minimize the risks of the above postoperative complications!As a rule, the patient returns to the usual way of life a few months after the operation.
Note: after surgery for parathyroid adenoma patients should take calcium-containing drugs and special vitamin-mineral complexes, in order to prevent the development of hypocalcemia!
For the most accelerated recovery, patients are recommended massages, exercise therapy, taking medications with a high content of vitamin D.
The medical prognosis after surgery for parathyroid adenoma is quite favorable.According to statistical data, the cases of possible relapses are no more than 20%!
The main prevention of parathyroid adenoma, as well as the possible relapse of this disease, is a properly balanced, rational diet.
According to the recommendations of the specialists, the following calcium-containing products should be the basis of the daily diet:
- sour-milk products;
- forest varieties of fungi;
- fresh and steamed vegetables.
But the use of butter, cheeses, fatty varieties of meat should, on the contrary, maximally limit!
In addition, doctors advise patients to adhere to the following rules:
- Take vitamin and mineral complexes.
- Avoid psychoemotional shocks.
- Regularly undergo preventive medical examinations, take tests for the determination of calcium.
- Timely treatment of hormonal disorders, endocrine disorders and thyroid diseases.
- Take a sun bath.
Parathyroid adenoma can lead to serious malfunctions in the functioning of internal organs and body systems, and even cause early death of the patient.However, competent and timely therapy, compliance with medical recommendations on diet, will help to achieve positive results and avoid undesirable complications!
Chumachenko Olga, medical reviewer