Diet for obesity
One of the main methods of treating obesity is a diet, without which it is simply impossible to achieve weight loss.Moreover, in the treatment of obesity, a specially formulated diet should be combined with acceptable physical loads.If the activity of the patient is low( he leads a sedentary lifestyle, is engaged in sedentary work), then he must have additional physical exertion, which will increase the energy costs of the organism.The preferred sport for obese people is considered to be swimming, but in each individual case both physical exercises and diet should be selected by the doctor individually.Table of contents: Principles of a diet for obesity Products for a diet for obesity
Principles of a diet for obesity
If a person is obese and the goal is to reduce body weight, then he should take into account several recommendations of specialists:
- Fractional nutrition will effectively eliminate hunger.Food should be consumed often, but in small portions - 6-7 times a day.
- You can create a sense of saturation by consuming a large amount of foods that have a low calorie content.These include, for example, raw vegetables and fruits.
- To reduce weight, it is sufficient to adhere to a diet, the calorie content of which does not exceed 1 900 kcal per day.
- Every week, you need to arrange a day off.
- From the diet should exclude products that can arouse appetite - for example, hot snacks, spices.
- Under the supervision of a specialist, the patient must adjust the balance of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the diet.
- It is necessary to reduce the intake of table salt to 5 grams per day, but the amount of drunk liquid should be increased to one and a half liters.
It is very important for obesity to limit the use of simple carbohydrates( sweets).This will not affect the state of human health at all, since simple carbohydrates are of no value to the body at all.Together with cereal cereals, potatoes and various products from the dough complex carbohydrates enter the body - their quantity should also be limited.
Many people who want to get rid of obesity avoid eating meat, cottage cheese and other foods high in protein.This in any case can not be done!Protein is an important component that determines the working capacity of all organs, therefore in the diet even with obesity meat, eggs, fish and cottage cheese should be present.You need to enter in the menu and vegetable proteins, which are in huge quantities found in legumes.In order not to be mistaken in the amount of protein products, you just need to remember that their daily amount should be 400-500 grams.
You can not exclude from the diet and fats - they are necessary for the activation of lipolytic enzymes that can oxidize the fats that have already accumulated in the body.The only thing that you should pay attention to is preference to give milk and vegetable fats, but it is better to refuse animals.
Products for the diet for obesity
There are a number of products that doctors strongly recommend to consume within the framework of therapeutic nutrition against the background of obesity.
It is acceptable to eat black, protein with bran and protein-wheat bread.Since this product contains the highest amount of carbohydrates, if the weight is too slow( or in the absence of this process), you need to reduce the daily amount of bread consumed.
Doctors allow patients with obesity to use soups on vegetable broth or fruit.No more than 2 times a week is allowed to use soups and soup on broth, but it should be "secondary".There are many disputes around mushroom soups - they are really considered dietary, but are not recommended for consumption more than twice a week.
Fish / meat dishes
Maximum 2 times a day you can eat lean pork, beef or lamb - the daily dosage is 100-150 grams, the meat should be either boiled or baked.The same way you can cook rabbit, chicken and lean( low-fat) varieties of fish - the optimal choice will be pike, navaga, cod or pike perch.Since the protein value of nutrition, even during weight loss is very important, you can enter in the menu mussels, scallops and other seafood.
Cereals and pasta
Here they just have to be used in limited quantities.If there is a great desire to introduce these products into the menu, then their quantity can be increased by reducing the baked goods used.
Vegetables and fruits
The most sensible thing is to eat these foods fresh / raw.Very useful for weight loss will be asparagus and zucchini, leaf lettuce and radish, cauliflower and green peas, legumes and white cabbage, tomatoes( tomatoes) and cucumbers.It is necessary to limit the consumption of carrots, potatoes, beets and other vegetables in the composition of which there are carbohydrates - it will be enough to eat 150 grams of these products per day.The table will need to remove garlic, radish, horseradish and onions, because they stimulate the appetite.
As for fruits, doctors recommend giving preference to pears, lemons, plums, berries and oranges.It is absolutely necessary to exclude those fruits, which contain a large number of carbohydrates - bananas, grapes, persimmons, figs, sweet cherries and dates.
Every day you need to use low-fat cottage cheese - 200 grams of this product are allowed per day.And, this cottage cheese can be eaten in any form.In addition, in the diet for obesity, you can use lean milk, kefir and sour cream, but the last product should be limited to 1-2 table spoons added to the dishes.Do not be banned and cheese, but you need to buy low-fat varieties.
Butter and vegetable oils
They can be used for cooking or salad dressing, but the daily amount should not exceed 40 grams.Every day you can eat 1 egg, but preferably in the form of omelettes or as part of other dishes.
You can safely drink tea, especially useful are green and herbal teas.They can add milk.Do not banned coffee, compotes, alkaline mineral water and fruit and berry juices.
Please note: is strictly forbidden to use chocolate, sweets and confectionery for obesity.Quite refusing will need to be from salty, sharp, smoked snacks, alcohol and semi-finished products.
Unloading days for obesity
The main diet should be kept constantly, but apart from this, once a week it is highly desirable to arrange unloading days.There are a lot of options - for example, you can spend a meat unloading day, when you consume a maximum of 350 grams of boiled low-fat meat with vegetable garnishes or a curd day, when you are allowed to consume a maximum of 600 grams of fat-free cottage cheese and a maximum of 3 cups of tea or coffee.
In case when the patient has low motor activity, the doctors recommend that you spend apple unloading days( one and a half kilograms of apples per day), watermelon( 2 kilograms of pulp) or kefir( one and a half liters).
Note: if a patient spends two days off a week in a week, experts recommend combining meat and apple, or curd and kefir.The above-mentioned daily dosages should be distributed throughout the day - food is consumed in small portions, but often.
If treatment of obesity with diet and exercise begins, the patient should regularly monitor his weight.Normal weight loss of 3-5 kg per month is considered, which indicates the effectiveness of the treatment.In all other cases it will be necessary to get advice from a specialist and adjust the treatment tactics.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category