Diabetes mellitus in children: features and principles of correction of well-being
Diabetes mellitus can appear at any age, there have been cases of diagnosing it in newborns, but this is more an exception than the rule.Most often, a violation of carbohydrate metabolism is observed in children aged 6 to 12 years, and statistics argue that 30-50% of adult patients account for only 10% of children with diabetes.Table of contents: Symptoms of diabetes mellitus in children Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in children Causes of diabetes in children Treatment of diabetes in children Prevention of the development of diabetes in children
The development of this disease occurs in almost the same way as in adultsPatients, the difference is only in certain age periods.
Important: at the age of 5 the risk of occurrence of violations of carbohydrate metabolism is the highest - the pancreas of a child only by the age of 6 starts to produce the right amount of insulin.The most commonly diagnosed is insulin-dependent diabetes in children.
Symptoms of diabetes mellitus in children
The considered disease in childhood develops not rapidly and suddenly, but gradually, characterized by growing symptoms. Parents should pay attention to the following syndromes:
- the child shows a desire to drink constantly, complains of dry mouth;
- vision is rapidly falling;
- the child's weight quickly decreases, but the appetite remains at the same level;
- fatigue, irritability against a full night's sleep.
Note: if there is at least one of the listed syndromes, and even more so 2 or all, then you should immediately take your child for examination to doctors - most likely, you will be diagnosed with diabetes mellitus.
It is common to distinguish between typical and atypical symptoms of diabetes in children.Typical parents can be noted - the child will complain of a regularly occurring headache of noisy character, a decline in school performance.
Atypical symptoms of the disease in question are:
- itching of the skin;
- appearance of pustular rashes;
- itching of the genital organs, which occurs immediately after urination.
In addition, with diabetes, children begin to increase the amount of urine released - up to 2 liters per day, and, no matter how much the amount of fluid consumed.Urine acquires a light shade and becomes sticky( this is due to the release of sugar in the urine).
Blood sugar in children
To confirm or deny the diagnosis of "diabetes" a child will have to undergo a survey.More information about which specialists should be visited and what tests to hand over, read in the article "Diabetes mellitus: signs, types, stages and causes".The most important analysis is the blood test for sugar.Usually, blood is taken from the finger, but it is also permissible in infants to take blood from the heel, earlobe or finger on the leg. Blood sugar in children depends on age :
- Children of the first year of life - 2,8-4,4 mmol / l.
- Children from one year to five - 3.3-5.0 mmol / l.
- Children over five years of age - 3,3-5,5 mmol / l.
Note: the child must take a blood test on an empty stomach( it is forbidden to eat and drink a significant amount of fluid for 10 hours before the analysis).In addition, before the analysis can not play active games, play sports, etc.: physical load is prohibited.
In some cases, the cause of increased blood sugar in a child may be diseases and conditions not associated with diabetes, for example:
- Nervous and physical stress that triggered the activation of hormonal functions of the adrenal glands or thyroid gland.
- Obesity, resulting in increased stress on the pancreas. Important: : obesity can lead to diabetes.
- Systemic diseases of the adrenal gland, thyroid gland and other endocrine glands.
- Admission of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Important : persistent increase in blood sugar( 6.1 mmol / L and higher) is a clear sign of diabetes in a child.
Causes of diabetes mellitus in children
Factors that can provoke a violation of carbohydrate metabolism in childhood are very many, but doctors identify several main ones:
- Heredity.Diabetes mellitus must manifest itself in children whose parents have the same diagnosis.The first symptoms can be noted in early childhood, in adolescents, and in quite adult people.During pregnancy, a woman diagnosed with diabetes should constantly monitor blood sugar - it instantly penetrates the placenta and can accumulate in the organs of an unborn child.
- Viral infections.These include rubella, parotitis epidemic, influenza, viral hepatitis - these diseases disrupt the functioning of the pancreas.In this case, destruction of pancreatic cells that produce insulin, the body's own immune system, occurs.The development of diabetes mellitus against the background of viral infections is possible only if there are factors that are favorable to this( eg, heredity).
- Overeating.Too good appetite and uncontrolled absorption by children of baking, sweet foods, desserts can lead to obesity.In this case, the load on the pancreas is significantly increased, the cells responsible for producing insulin are depleted and cease to function normally.
- A sedentary lifestyle.Low activity leads to obesity, and even not intensive physical activity stimulates the work of "insulin" cells in the pancreas.
- Regular colds.With frequent recurrences of SARS, the body's immune system produces antibodies to them, and this process occurs even in the absence of disease.As a result, antibodies begin to literally "devour" healthy cells of the organs - the pancreas is no exception.
Treatment for diabetes in childrenRecommended reading:
Treatment of diabetes is primarily a correction of blood sugar levels.Rarely doctors immediately prescribe insulin - in childhood, with timely diagnosis of pathology, it is possible to correct the condition with the help of dietary nutrition. Doctors recommend the following food intake rules:
- carbohydrate food is either completely excluded or significantly limited - the maximum amount of carbohydrate food per day should not exceed 400 grams;
- in the diet should include fruits, vegetables, dairy products and meat - glucose should enter the body;
- tangerines, grapefruit and any citrus - they can be consumed in almost unlimited quantities, but only in the absence of hypersensitivity / individual intolerance to these types of fruits;
- categorically can not eat white bread, buttery pastries, bananas, grapes, dates, figs, sweets, juices.
Diets for children with diabetes should be developed by a specialist - the child grows and it is important for him to receive absolutely all micro / macro elements, vitamins for normal development. In addition, you need to adhere to certain rules:
- dishes should not be too hot or very cold - choose the average temperature;
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus presupposes 5-6 meals a day, at the same time it is necessary for a child to eat at the same time every day;
- child should not use spices;
- restrict the intake of products cooked in a fried way;
- parents should monitor the amount of fluid used - an allowable daily rate of maximum 1800 liters;
- a clear diet - eating should be done at the same time.
You will receive all the necessary information about the diet and diet for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in a child by viewing this video review:
Diabetes mellitus in children is accompanied by the intake of certain medications - insulin and angioprotectors.In addition, the doctor must choose choleretic medications, vitamins and hepatoprotectors - this will reduce the burden on the pancreas.
Important: insulin, used for diabetes in children, has a short action, is injected with a syringe pen intradermally.It is very convenient and absolutely safe - the child can learn how to do the injections independently and not depend on the presence of a number of adults, which provides him with a full life.
Modern medicine can offer and transplantation of the pancreas - it is a question of transplanting either a whole organ or a certain part of it.Very often such operations result in organ rejection( the body's immune system perceives it as an alien body), the development of pancreatitis( inflammation of the pancreas).Doctors consider the wide possibilities of embryonic pancreas transplantation, but such operations are at the level of scientific research and experiments.First of all, you need to identify a risk group - if the child is in it, then the following rules should be adhered to:
- limit the use of sweets, buns and white bread;
- regularly check blood sugar levels;
- get advice from a nutritionist and make a balanced diet;
- to nullify the development of obesity - a child must lead an active lifestyle, engage in physical training.
If the diabetes in a child is diagnosed, then parents should constantly monitor the timely intake of medicines, including insulin, adjust the diet, engage in sports.Only in this case it is possible to reduce the risk of complications of diabetes, and the child will lead a normal life in the future.To get more information about diabetes in children, watch this video:
Yana Tsygankova, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category