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Why the thyroid gland is enlarged during pregnancy

The thyroid gland is the organ of the endocrine system, which is responsible for the course of metabolic processes in the human body and mental development.The iron produces triiodothyronine and thyroxine - the two most important hormones, with a lack of which the work of the whole organism is disrupted.

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Why the thyroid gland


Thyroid disorders occur, most often due to lack of iodine in the body.Such insufficiency is noted practically in every woman during the period of gestation - pregnancy means the consumption of important substances and elements in the body in an increased quantity.

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In addition to the lack of iodine in the body, the cause of an increase in the thyroid gland may be a bad environmental situation in the region of residence - according to statistics of medical workers, the number of thyroid gland diseases is significantly higher among residents of such areas.

It is very important to take into account during pregnancy and the hormonal background of a woman - even a small "swing" of it becomes a provoking factor for an increase in the thyroid gland.

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Note: is the particular organ of the endocrine system that produces hormones that directly affect the formation and development of the nervous system, the musculoskeletal system and the heart with the fetal vessels.If the thyroid gland is enlarged during pregnancy, it can lead to congenital pathologies and a decrease in the intelligence of the unborn child.

Thyroid Disease and Pregnancy

The endocrine system under consideration works during pregnancy in a strengthened mode.The fact is that the fetus synthesizes hormones with its own thyroid gland begins at 12-13 weeks of gestation, so during this period the expectant mother should take about 200 micrograms of iodine per day.

If during pregnancy pregnancy is diagnosed with thyroid disease, the decision on what kind of medical measures can and should be taken takes a gynecologist in tandem with an endocrinologist. There are two possible scenarios:

  • Thyroid disease does not threaten the health and life of the unborn child, and doctors perform therapy in a sparing mode;
  • pathology is a serious, successful development of the fetus is excluded - doctors will insist on the artificial termination of pregnancy by medical indicators.

Thyroid Diseases:

  • partial absence of thyroid;
  • complete absence of thyroid;
  • tumors of benign and / or malignant;
  • of the thyroid cyst;
  • thyroiditis is an inflammatory process in the thyroid gland;
  • hypothyroidism - decreased gland function;
  • goiter.

Tumors and cysts of the thyroid gland during pregnancy

Tumors and cysts of the thyroid gland during pregnancy

It is very difficult to diagnose a thyroid tumor - often such a neoplasm is not accompanied by any symptoms.Moreover, even if a woman develops a malignant tumor of the thyroid gland, the symptoms of the pathology can be completely identical to the first signs of pregnancy - nausea and vomiting, taste change, smell impairment, weakness and dizziness, increased drowsiness.To precisely diagnose a tumor of a thyroid gland it is possible only on ultrasonic research, therefore gynecologists more often do similar appointments to pregnant women.

Note: development of thyroid cancer and hormonal disturbances are unrelated.This is also the difference between thyroid cysts and, therefore, for the differentiation of the diagnosis, the specialists conduct a histological examination of the neoplasm( biopsy) and a blood test for the presence of oncomarkers.

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If before a woman after a thyroid cancer suffered pregnancy and childbirth were contraindicated, the modern possibilities of medicine make it possible to become a mother even to those patients who had an operation to completely remove the thyroid gland.The woman is allowed to become pregnant 12 months after the therapeutic or surgical treatment of thyroid cancer, but the doctors will closely observe all 9 months of the patient's health.If, against the background of pregnancy, a woman has a relapse of a malignant disease, it is advisable to have an abortion.

Thyroiditis in pregnancy

This thyroid disease is also impossible to diagnose quickly and simply - its symptoms almost completely coincide with the characteristic signs of the onset of pregnancy.A woman complains of unmotivated irritability, quick fatigue, increased drowsiness, nausea and vomiting after taking even her usual and favorite food.

Thyroiditis must necessarily be treated, even during pregnancy.Since this pathology develops with a lack of iodine, specialists prescribe a woman taking medications with a high iodine content.

Hypothyroidism in pregnancy

The doctor can determine the fact of the thyroid gland function decrease only according to the results of laboratory blood tests - they will show the decrease in the level of hormones that the particular organ of the endocrine system synthesizes.Hypothyroidism develops against the backdrop of violations in the immune system, is a chronic disease and therefore during pregnancy, a woman is monitored not only by a gynecologist, but also by an endocrinologist.

Treatment of hypothyroidism is carried out with the use of hormonal drugs, if a woman ignores the appointment of a doctor during the period of gestation, that is, a high risk of having a baby with severe brain damage, deafness and dumbness, and other severe pathologies.

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Note: if hypothyroidism was not diagnosed before conception, a woman may be recommended for an artificial termination of pregnancy by medical indicators.Uncontrolled progression of this thyroid disease leads to the birth of a baby with severe, incompatible with life, pathologies.

Goiter during pregnancy

Goiter in Pregnancy

During pregnancy, a woman usually develops goiter.By this name is meant a persistent enlargement of the thyroid gland, not associated with inflammation or malignant growth of this organ.

Goiter, as a rule, is not a contraindication to pregnancy and childbirth, but the patient must be under the supervision of a gynecologist and endocrinologist for all 9 months, it may be necessary to undergo periodic treatment in a hospital.

The enlargement of the thyroid gland, the diseases of this organ of the endocrine system, is not always an occasion for the artificial termination of pregnancy.In any case, the final decision is made by a gynecologist and endocrinologist.

Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category

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