Types of enlargement of the thyroid gland
Thyroid enlargement is considered a pathology, but not a definite disease - endocrinologists identify several ailments in which this pathology will be noted.In addition, the entire thyroid gland may be enlarged, but this pathological process can affect only one part of the organ - in which case the symptoms will be strikingly different.Table of contents: Increased thyroid gland diffuse nature Increased thyroid nodule Increased thyroid gland Increased thyroid isthmus Thymus enlargement in men Basic principles of treatment Diet Possible consequences for thyroid gland Prophylaxis
Increased thyroid gland of diffuse natureRecommendedRead:
This disease occurs against the background of a malfunction in the work of its own immune system - it literally "aTakuet "the body, causing violations in the hormonal balance, metabolic processes.
Statistically, diffuse thyroid enlargement is often diagnosed in young patients - between the ages of 20 and 25, with more women.The main cause of this disease endocrinologists call a defect of the immune system.
- poor tolerance of high air temperatures, although previously this has not been observed;
- increased sweating - on some days the patient literally sweats afterwards;
- unmotivated nervousness, irritability, bad mood;
- chronic insomnia;
- loss of appetite and a large, sudden weight loss.
Note: often patients are admitted to an endocrinologist on the recommendation of neuropathologists and / or psychotherapists - prolonged depression and nervous breakdowns are typical for diffuse enlargement of the thyroid gland. Diagnosis of this disease is carried out using ultrasound, computed tomography, laboratory blood tests to determine the level of hormones.
Treatment of diffuse enlargement of the thyroid gland is performed with iodine-containing medications and a specially developed diet.The prognosis is favorable, according to statistics, 70% of patients are completely cured of pathology without relapses, and timely correction of the functionality of the thyroid gland removes psychoemotional problems.
This disease is often diagnosed and belongs to the category of hereditary pathologies.A node in the thyroid gland is called a part surrounded by a capsule - it is perfectly palpable when palpated, even with absolute health.
Endocrinologists believe that an increase in the thyroid nodule is not always provoked by hormonal disorders. The following features are distinguished for this disease:
- The nodes can be benign and malignant - the latter are diagnosed in 5% of cases.
- When the thyroid nodule is enlarged, the goiter is diagnosed.
- In some cases, a fluid can be found inside the node - in this case, diagnose the cyst of the thyroid gland.
- The causes of the disease under consideration are:
- a hereditary factor - this refers to malignant tumors;
- deficiency of iodine in the organism of a chronic nature;
- frequent viral infections;
- constant stresses, nervous breakdowns;
- accommodation in a region with poor ecology;
- a violation of the diet and as a consequence - a lack of vitamins and microelements that come with the products to the body.Symptoms of thyroid nodule enlargement:
- Dysfunction of the respiratory system and cough;
Diagnosis of an enlarged thyroid nodule consists of performing an ultrasound examination of the organ, radiography of the chest organs using a contrast agent, a laboratory blood test to determine the level of hormones.
Please note: if a doctor suspects of a malignant nature of the increase, the doctor will prescribe a biopsy - a histological examination of the tumor fragment for the presence of cancer cells.Treatment of an enlarged thyroid nodule consists in the constant observation of the patient's endocrinologist, the appointment of medication.
If the malignant nature of the increase is confirmed, then surgical intervention is practiced - the enlarged node is removed.In addition, the patient will have to constantly adhere to a specially designed diet.
Thyroid gland enlargement
The thyroid gland consists of two parts, and the anatomical feature of the organ is the larger size of the right lobe - this is the norm.Weight of the thyroid gland varies within 20-30 grams, if the pathology is absent, then its proportions are soft, painless when palpating and can not be shifted during swallowing.An increase in the proportion of the thyroid gland may indicate the presence of an inflammatory process.
Most often, an increase in the proportion of the thyroid gland is due to the development / growth of the cyst - a benign tumor with liquid contents.With this disease, the cyst will not be large( maximum 3 cm), and the symptomatology is determined by the hoarseness of the voice, coughing and regular throat swelling.
Note: with an increase in the thyroid gland, there is no pain syndrome.This disease can be determined and visually - the neck is deformed, and when turning the head clearly visible convex neoplasm.Diagnostic measures are performed only by an endocrinologist - ultrasound examination, puncture of fluid from a benign neoplasm, scanning of the thyroid gland by a radioisotope method.
Treatment can be varied:
- , when diagnosing small size cysts, the patient is assigned a diet and dynamic supervision;
- of a large cyst size is subject to removal.
Increased thyroid isthmus
This disease is diagnosed very rarely and is always associated with hormonal disorders in the body, it can be associated with the spread of metastases in a previously diagnosed malignant neoplasm.Treatment of an increase in the isthmus of the thyroid gland consists in the intake of iodine-containing drugs, the appointment of a special diet and dynamic observation of the patient.
Note: if the cause of this disease is the cancer of the cancer cells in the isthmus, then the removal of the enlarged thyroid zone is required.
Thyroid enlargement in men
The examined pathology in men is rarely diagnosed, which is associated with anatomical features of the structure of the organ.If even the increase began, then it can be determined in men at an early stage, because it immediately reflects on the volume of the neck. The following diseases can provoke the pathology under consideration in men:
- Hyperteriosis( Basedova's disease).Signs of pathology are a sharp weight loss, the patient becomes unnecessarily restless and very talkative, there is a constant trembling of the fingertips on his hands and increased sweating.Very often, hyperteriosis is manifested by impaired erectile function( a man has problems with potency) and dysfunctional heart( arrhythmia, tachycardia).
- Hypothyroidism.The neck at the man considerably thickens, there is a chronic feeling of weariness, in the lower and upper extremities the cold is constantly felt, the erectile function is broken.
- Thyroiditis.It is considered the most dangerous disease, which quickly progresses and manifests itself not only by a significant increase in the thyroid gland, but also by difficulty swallowing, increased sensitivity to low air temperature.Note: thyroiditis belongs to the category of hereditary diseases, but it is rarely diagnosed - men with such a diagnosis, as a rule, do not have children.
The most common patient questions about the thyroid gland are answered by a physician:
Basic principles of treatment
Treatment for thyroid enlargement should only take place under the control of the endocrinologist.The considered condition can be suspected in itself on some symptoms, but the exact diagnosis can be made only with the use of special techniques. The main principles of treatment are:
- The most common therapy is the administration of hormonal drugs.Moreover, the therapy is carried out only after a full-fledged examination and drawing up an individual scheme for taking medications.
- Surgery on the thyroid gland is extremely rare, because the whole body is "permeated" with blood vessels and the procedure can be dangerous for the patient's life.Often after surgery, there are various complications - for example, the patient has paralysis of the vocal cords.In addition, even successfully performed surgical treatment does not exclude the lifetime reception of specially selected hormonal drugs.
- Rarely, but is used in the treatment of thyroid gland enlargement with radioactive iodine.He gives excellent results, but has the only drawback - even a doctor often can not accurately calculate the therapeutic dose, which is fraught with the development of a decrease in hormone production.
DietWe recommend reading:
Proper nutrition is of great importance in the treatment of thyroid enlargement - a patient must adhere to a diet all his life to avoid relapses. Doctors strongly recommend to include in the daily diet the following products:
- drinks, decoctions and teas from bitter herbs - you can use wormwood, yarrow, St. John's Wort;
- blueberries, sauerkraut, pumpkin, Brussels sprouts, beets and other products containing manganese and cobalt;
- melted butter and any vegetable;
- vegetables baked in the oven or steamed;
- celery and garlic;
- walnuts and almonds;
- any seafood.
Products that must be excluded from the diet or at least restricted in use:
- sausages, sardines, animal fat, fatty meat;
- milk and its derivatives;
- eggs in any form;
- sauces, pepper ground black / red, mayonnaise;
- flour of the first grade and any products from it.
Note: the diet for thyroid gland enlargement should be selected individually.Self-restriction in the use of certain products can lead to deterioration.
Possible consequences for thyroid enlargement
An increase in the thyroid gland can lead to various problems - from nervousness to prolonged depression.The main problem in this pathology is the violation of the hormonal background - for example, the increase in the level of thyroid hormones( thyrotoxicosis) in the blood is generally dangerous for the patient's life. Doctors highlight several mandatory consequences for the patient with an increase in the thyroid gland that will be fixed at any degree / stage of the pathology:
- Steady sleep disorders.If the enlargement of the thyroid gland is due to too much hormone release, the patient will complain of insomnia, but with reduced amounts of hormones - on increased drowsiness.
- Hypersensitivity to temperature.It was noted that it is this fact that is mandatory when the thyroid gland is enlarged, and in some cases it is also one of the first symptoms of pathology.Pay attention: with increased function of the thyroid gland, the body temperature rises and the person constantly feels a fever; in the case of a decreased activity, everything happens the other way around - the patient does not tolerate a low temperature and constantly experiences cold.
- Digestive disorders.The thyroid gland is responsible for the normal, stable operation of all organs and systems, it is not surprising that a patient with augmentation of this organ and an increase or decrease in his activity can detect diarrhea or chronic constipation, recurrent intestinal colic.
- Unstable body weight.Hormones produced / secreted by the thyroid gland serve as regulators of metabolic processes in the body.With too much hormone, the patient will lose weight, but there will be no loss of appetite.But with reduced activity of the thyroid gland, the patient will lose appetite until completely refusing food, but at the same time the body weight will increase steadily.
To avoid an increase in the thyroid gland, the following recommendations of endocrinologists should be adhered to:
- Find out what level of iodine intake occurs at the place of residence - it depends on how clean the ecology of the region,.You can get such information either in the department of the sanitary-epidemiological service, or at the endocrinologist.
- Replace conventional table salt with sea salt or iodized salt.Pay attention: this salt has a very peculiar taste, which repels many people from its use.You can combine both types of salt - for example, iodized use only in sharp dishes, broths.
- At least 2 times a week on the table should be seafood.Let it be a simple salad from kelp( sea kale) or fried in battered squid - the right dose of iodine will enter the body.
- Prevent an increase in the thyroid gland can be and regularly eating nuts.You can use any kind of nuts, but the main "emphasis" is better to do on the walnuts.
- At least once a year you need to visit an endocrinologist for preventive examination - the doctor will be able to detect an increase in the thyroid gland at an early stage and by setting iodine-containing drugs and diet adjust the functionality of the body.
An enlargement of the thyroid gland is a rather unpleasant pathology, which can lead to serious disabilities in health and the usual rhythm of life.But at the same time, endocrinologists say that by adhering to a certain diet and taking hormonal drugs or iodine supplements, you can live a long life even with this disease.
It is important to detect the problem at the very beginning of its development, therefore periodically it is possible to carry out the diagnostics yourself.You just need to feel your own thyroid gland and make sure that it is mobile, painless, the lobes are well palpated and soft / elastic.If, however, something of these "points" is embarrassing or when you feel, in addition to discomfort, there are severe painful sensations, then a doctor's visit should not be postponed for a long time.You can get more information about thyroid inflammation by viewing this video:
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category.