Hypoplasia of the thyroid: symptoms and treatment
Hypoplasia of the thyroid gland is a rare disease characterized by underdevelopment of this organ, accompanied by impaired production of hormones and slow growth of thyroid tissue.
Many people do not know about this disease at all, although in differential diagnosis it is detected in them - this is due to the asymptomatic course of the pathology in most cases.Doctors are well aware that the disease in question begins to develop in utero, with a proper examination of the newborn it can be diagnosed in the first hours of the baby's life.Table of contents: Causes of hypoplasia of the thyroid gland Symptoms of hypoplasia of the thyroid Diagnostic measures How to treat hypoplasia of thyroid
Causes of thyroid hypoplasia
The research has revealed that the main and only cause of the disease under consideration is a mutation of the gene thatOccurs during pregnancy in the fetus. But the mutation of the gene can occur against the background of provoking factors:
- insufficient intake of iodine in the body of a woman during pregnancy;
- diagnosed hypothyroidism and thyroiditis in a pregnant woman;
- long-term use of hormonal drugs during the period of gestation;
- has a negative effect on the body of a woman's radiation and chemical / toxic substances.
In addition, the hereditary factor was determined - studies in this direction are being actively carried out, but so far the official confirmation of the theory has not been published.
Symptoms of hypoplasia of thyroid
Symptoms typical for the disease in question begin to appear closer to 2-3 months of a newborn's life, and are due to their appearance by insufficient production of thyroxine and triiodothyronine.
Symptoms of hypoplasia of the thyroid gland in children:
- body weight decreases;
- the child's appetite decreases, there may even be a refusal to eat;
- there are signs of jaundice, which lasts for a long time;
- the voice of the baby becomes hoarse;
- the child becomes listless, apathetic and drowsy;
- on external stimuli( sound / light) the child practically does not react;
- Constant constipation, despite the properly selected baby feed.
Note: at the age of 4-6 months the child begins to manifest a physical gap, the simplest "agukaniy" is degraded, the child does not concentrate on one thing( action or object).
If the disease in question is not diagnosed in time, then the necessary medical care will not be provided.This leads to the development of cretinism - a severe complication of hypoplasia of the thyroid gland, which is characterized by dementia, serious neurologic disorders.
If the disease under consideration is not diagnosed and there is no treatment, it inevitably leads to abnormalities in the reproductive system and is the main cause of infertility in women.
Symptoms of cretinism:
- navel is too low, the abdomen is disproportionately bulging;
- physique is disproportionate - the bridge of the nose is depressed, the growth is too low, the head is too large, the squint is stiff;
- nails are thin( they fade and crumble), the hair is thin and constantly falls out, the skin becomes too thick;
- genitals are underdeveloped;
- gait clunky, coordination of movements is broken;
- voice is hoarse;
- speech is broken.
The late stages of the disease in question will be characterized by the appearance of myxedema edema - in the body cavities of the patient, a mucus fluid accumulates. Against the background of these edemas there are:
- swollen eyelids and smoothness of all contours of the face;
- swells around the nasopharyngeal mucosa, so the patient has problems with the work of the respiratory system;
- has a chronic edema of the middle ear, which worsens hearing;
- develops heart failure.
Hypoplasia of the thyroid gland in an adult is characterized by a gradual increase in the size of the heart, which is accompanied by the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial cavity.As a result of heart failure, patients develop renal failure and serious impairment of the digestive system.
Early diagnosis of hypoplasia of the thyroid gland is possible only with regular preventive examinations at the endocrinologist.If an expert suspects the disease in question, the patient is assigned ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland, a blood test for the level of hormone concentration.
Modern medicine makes it possible to diagnose hypoplasia of the thyroid gland in infants - perinatal screening is increasingly prescribed by doctors.
How to treat hypoplastic thyroid
Treatment of the disease in question is carried out by the appointment of substitution therapy.The patient is forced all his life to take specific medications that will make up for the lack of thyroid hormones.Such therapy requires regular monitoring of the level of hormones in the patient's blood.
If thyroid hypoplasia treatment was started in early childhood, it will prevent the development of severe complications and prevent the progression of the disease itself.If treatment is started at an older age, then the existing disorders become irreversible, but it is possible to stop further progression of thyroid hypoplasia.
The prognosis of the disease directly depends on the age at which thyroid hypoplasia was diagnosed and how quickly its treatment began.If therapy is not carried out, the patient gradually loses his skills, cretinism develops, and everything ends with an early death.
Thyroid hypoplasia is a complex disease that must necessarily be controlled by specialists.With a competent approach to treatment, it is possible to avoid the most difficult variant of pathology development.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category