Thyroid gland diseases in men
Diseases of the thyroid gland in men are not much different from similar deviations in the female half of humanity.Nevertheless, certain differences are still observed, and this should be emphasized.
The thyroid gland is part of a single endocrine system and is responsible for the production of iodine-containing hormones, without which the normal work of the human body is simply not possible."Shchitovidka" consists of two parts joined together, and is in front of the larynx.The total volume of shares in men is normally not more than twenty five milliliters.Each share, in turn, is divided into small lobules, consisting of follicles, which directly produce hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine.These secrets take part in the most important processes of the body's vital activity: without them, normal metabolism, heat regulation, the functioning of the cardiovascular and nervous systems are impossible, they significantly affect the development of intelligence and the enhancement of immunity.
Men have many different pathologies of the thyroid gland. The most common are thyrotoxicosis, endemic goiter, chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, hypothyroidism, various thyroid tumors( both malignant and benign).Diagnosis and treatment of these diseases is performed by a doctor endocrinologist.Table of contents: Hypothyroidism in men: symptoms and treatment Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis in men: symptoms and treatment Thyrotoxicosis( hyperthyroidism) in men: symptoms and treatment Endemic goiter in men: symptoms and treatment Thyroid cancer
Hypothyroidism in men: Symptoms and treatment
Hypothyroidism occurs due to insufficient production of hormones by the thyroid gland.The reasons for the decrease in the secretory function of the gland can be very different - for example, it is possible if the gland is damaged by destructive syphilitic or tuberculous processes, with various inflammations, including autoimmune( chronic autoimmune thyroiditis), as a result of partial removal of the gland surgically by cancer.
The main symptomatology of this disease in men and women coincides almost completely:
- General fatigue and weakness of the body appear, increased drowsiness, weight gain is observed, even with a decrease in appetite.
- The psychological state changes, there is a deterioration in mood right up to apathy and depression.Thinking is sluggish, memory is deteriorating noticeably.
- Puffiness of the face can be observed, because of the swelling of the vocal cords, speech becomes vague, slow.
- The total body temperature decreases, the patient is cold, the skin is dry, in some cases hair loss is fixed.
- Pain in the joints and in the heart region is possible, bradycardia( slowing of the heart rate) is noted.
- Disturbances in the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract are expressed in the form of constipation.
- Men have erectile dysfunction.
Treatment is reduced to the introduction of thyroid hormones into the body.Prevention, in principle, does not exist, but it is necessary to regularly be screened by an endocrinologist, for preventive purposes, for the timely detection of the disease.
Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis in men: symptoms and treatment
Although doctors prefer to treat this disease as a hereditary disease, its development is possible only in the event of a malfunction in the human immune system.The symptomatology completely coincides with the manifestations of hypothyroidism described above, but developed more strongly.
Treatment is based on hormone replacement therapy, anti-inflammatory measures and suppression of autoimmune reactions.
Preventive measures are directed, first of all, to prevent the appearance of nodes and cysts in the thyroid gland.The main task is to control the level of thyroid hormones and timely elimination of autoimmune inflammation.
Thyrotoxicosis( Hyperthyroidism) in men: symptoms and treatment
Hyperthyroidism - characterized by an excessive level of hormones produced by the thyroid gland.
Common symptoms in men and women are manifested in the form of exophthalmos( swelling), excessive sweating, weight loss, despite increased appetite, tachycardia( increased heart rate), attacks of atrial fibrillation are possible. In addition:
- muscle weakness is observed, at times muscle atrophy, movement uncoordination;
- the nervous system is in an overexcited state, there is fussiness, talkativeness, tremor of hands;
- hair becomes brittle and dry, chances of premature baldness are high;
- possible constipation;
- in the case of men suffers from the sexual system, the sexual desire is greatly reduced and the erectile function is disturbed;
- increases the risk of myocardial infarction;
- , a thickening of the back of the feet and front surfaces of the lower legs is observed, pathological fragility of the bones is noted against the background of osteoporosis.
Please note! It should be noted that in men the course of thyrotoxicosis is more severe and prolonged than in women.
Treatment by medicinal methods consists in prescribing drugs that suppress the secretory function of the thyroid gland. It is possible to use radioactive iodine, under the action of which active cells die off.In especially severe cases resort to surgical methods of treatment, removing part of the thyroid gland. In any method of treatment, strict control by the endocrinologist is necessary, since with incorrect treatment, hyperthyroidism can develop into hypothyroidism.
The main prevention is a healthy lifestyle, refusal from alcohol and smoking, regular preventive examinations by an endocrinologist.It is also recommended to avoid stress, fatigue and significant physical exertion.
Endemic goiter in men: symptoms and treatment
Endemic goiter is a pathological growth of the thyroid gland associated with a deficiency of iodine in the human body coming from the outside with water and food.
The most striking symptom of this pathology is an increase in the volume of the thyroid gland( for men the normal volume is twenty-five milliliters). When probing the gland there is no soreness, the tissues are sufficiently elastic, uniform, but in especially severe cases, nodules and seals can be probed.The general condition is characterized by headache, weakness, difficulty breathing and swallowing, a feeling of squeezing the neck( especially lying on the back), bouts of coughing.With a significant increase in the gland, it is possible to squeeze the trachea, down to choking.
If the thyroid gland is hypertrophied slightly, the treatment is carried out with iodine( iodomarin) and iodine-containing diet .But when the size of the goiter acquires a critical scale, then without the help of surgeons will not be able to do.The most iodized products include feijoa, sea kale( kelp), various seafood, iodized salt, walnut .
For the normal functioning of the body of an adult, one hundred to two hundred micrograms of iodine per day is sufficient.With a properly formulated diet to provide this need is not so difficult.
Oncological diseases of the thyroid gland
To oncological diseases of the thyroid gland include cysts, various tumors and cancer. Usually, in the male half of humanity, the oncology of the thyroid gland occurs without significant symptoms. Diagnosis is performed by ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging and other specific methods of investigation.
Treatment of tumors is carried out by an oncologist. Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are prescribed, surgical intervention is recommended in later stages.
Prevention of oncological diseases of the thyroid gland includes maintaining a normal amount of iodine in the body and identifying oncology in the early stages.
In men, thyroid disorders are much less common than in women, but the severity of the course usually does not depend on the sex of the patient.Only hyperthyroidism is tolerated by men much worse.And given the general male dislike for visiting doctors, thyroid disorders are found in them in more advanced stages.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category