Fruit in diabetes: what can, and from what should I refrain?
Admissibility of adding fruits to the daily diet of people with diabetes has long been a cornerstone in the disputes of endocrinologists.It was believed that the richness of fruits with carbohydrates will contribute to the fact that the amount of sugar in the human blood will increase rapidly.Table of contents: What is a glycemic index?What kind of fruit can I eat with diabetes?Fruits enriched with pectin Features of products and their effect on the health of diabetics What fruits can not be eaten with diabetes?
Modern studies have shown the safety and even the benefits of eating fruits in diabetes, if this occurs with the implementation of certain rules and norms that help the blood sugar level to remain at an acceptable level for this pathology.
In order to select the permissible fruits and berries in each clinical case, it is necessary to take into account an important factor, such as the glycemic index of a certain product.
What is the glycemic index?
In order to determine which product can be used for a sick diabetes, and which can not in any case, it is important to know how quickly the carbohydrates contained in this product are metabolized in the body.The speed of their entry and concentration determine the danger of each product for a diabetic.
The glycemic index determines the rate of absorption of glucose and its entry into the blood.It serves as a reference point for the compilation of individual nutrition programs.
Depending on how fast the food is digested, the following glycemic index constants are distinguished:
- Less than 30% is a low glycemic index.They can be added to the menu with diabetes of any type and at any stage.Low glycemic index has a fairly wide range of products, which includes a large number of different types of cereals and dietary, easily digestible meat.
- From 30% to 70% - the average index of glycemia.The introduction of such products into the daily diet is discussed with the doctor, after a detailed review of the analyzes and individual calculation of insulin doses.Such species include eggs, legumes, dairy and sour-milk products, vegetables.
- Over 70% is a high glycemic index.Such products must be strictly limited.Their use in food is fraught with the development of dangerous side effects, so few diabetics can afford to enter them into the daily menu.These include chocolate, honey, potatoes, sweet pastries and other products containing a high percentage of carbohydrates and glucose in its composition. Products with a glycemic index of over 90% are strictly prohibited for diabetes at any stage.
Since the simultaneous calculation of insulin doses and the glycemic index of each product in the daily menu is an occupation requiring high professional knowledge and close attention, it is best to give the doctor the right to develop a diet with a permitted set of products in the daily menu.
What kind of fruit can I eat with diabetes?
Fruits are very useful for humans, as they contain a large number of vitamins and trace elements, necessary for the normal functioning of vital organs and systems.The beneficial effect of fruits is that they are able to strengthen the body's natural defenses, which significantly help normalize blood sugar levels and other metabolic processes, for example, the accelerated absorption of substances required by a weakened diabetes.
Those products that contain a large number of fibers of pectin, or fiber, contribute to the normalization of metabolic processes in diabetics.
Two types of fruits are distinguished by the composition of pectin:
- Fruits that contain soluble fiber.This type of pectin, connecting with water molecules, increases in size and promotes the absorption and excretion of cholesterol, as well as a significant drop in blood sugar levels.
- Products containing insoluble fiber.Pectin fibers are denser, slower to digest and cause a feeling of saturation, even in those cases when it was eaten quite a bit.This is very important for patients with diabetes, since in their case, when compiling a daily menu, it is necessary to take into account the mass and volume of portions eaten per day. In addition, fruits containing pectin are able to regulate body weight in pathological weight gain, which is often found in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Both types of pectin are vital for a diabetic person.Most often they can be found in one fruit, as the peel contains a soluble type of fiber, and the pulp is an insoluble .
Pectin is the most valuable for diabetics because it is able to excrete poisonous substances from the body naturally, without provoking sudden jumps in the level of sugar in the blood.Fiber interacts with enzymes and products of decay, leaving its own and not contributing to exacerbation of pathology.
Important! The daily need for diabetics in pectin is about 30 grams.
Fruit enriched with pectin
Modern endocrinologists and nutritionists have identified several types of fruits with high fiber content:
- Citrus( grapefruits, lemons, oranges);
- kiwi fruit;
- grenades;Melon and melon.
In order to get the necessary dose of fiber, a diabetic patient needs to eat a couple of melon fruits, one large fruit of an apple or pear, or a glass of berries.
Other fruits have too high a glycemic index, so that diabetics can fearlessly consume them.
Features of products and their effects on the health of diabetics
Each of the above mentioned fruits has a special set of properties beneficial to the body, affected by diabetes.
Apples and pears are considered the most rational for use in diabetes, because in addition to pectin, they contain a high level of vitamins and minerals. They support the metabolism and metabolic processes, which are very afflicted with diabetes mellitus.
Cherry contains a large amount of coumarin, which has a destructive effect on thrombi - pathological cholesterol plaques, which are often formed in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Citrus fruits, with their known high content of vitamin C, help maintain the elasticity and patency of blood vessels.
Kiwi has the ability to adjust the set of fat mass, and also has a beneficial effect on the pancreas.
Watermelons and melons are acceptable for human consumption by people affected by hormonal pathologies, but it is important to remember that their glycemic index is 75%, in addition, with prolonged storage in the watermelon, intensive accumulation of fructose and sucrose begins.In addition, watermelon, due to its high carbohydrate indices, can provoke a feeling of hunger, enough dangerous for a diabetic, so it is necessary to limit the amount of consumed fruit to 300 mg per day.
Despite the danger of melons, one should not refuse them immediately, as watermelons and melons contain a high percentage of useful potassium, as well as fiber, so necessary for diabetics.
What kind of fruit can not be eaten with diabetes?
It is important to remember that any fruit that has been cooked in sweetened water, immediately becomes unacceptable to use for a patient with diabetes mellitus.Freshly squeezed juices are also banned, as in them the level of glucose is an order of magnitude higher than in fresh or frozen fruits.
From fruits directly to the use are forbidden:
- overripe melons and watermelons;
- bright yellow bananas;
- grape of any kind.
Such fruits possess an extremely high index of the glycemic index, which means that it is potentially dangerous for those suffering from various disorders of insulin production, which is necessary for glucose uptake.
In addition, diabetics are strictly contraindicated dried fruits, because in them the percentage of sugar is unusually high.From compotes and fruit drinks on their basis, too, should refrain.
Proper nutrition, selected after careful consultation with a specialist doctor, adherence to the norms of consumption of food and the calculation of the necessary doses of nutrients will help to maintain health and well-being in diabetes mellitus.
Konev Alexander, internist