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Hyperplasia of the thyroid gland: degrees, signs and treatment

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The pathological state of the thyroid gland, which is characterized by its increase and disruption of functionality, is classified in medicine as hyperplasia of the thyroid gland.There are two types of this disease - diffuse and nodular.

Diffuse hyperplasia of the thyroid gland is a condition in which an increase in the organ occurs uniformly and symmetrically.In this case, over time, this kind of the disease under consideration necessarily passes into the nodal one.

Nodular hyperplasia of the thyroid gland - the enlargement of the organ occurs unevenly, common and single nodes appear in different parts of the gland.This type of disease indicates its progression.

Note: hyperplasia can occur without a visible increase in the thyroid gland, but all the symptoms inherent in this disease will necessarily manifest.

Table of contents: Causes of hyperplasia of the thyroid gland Signs of thyroid hyperplasia

Causes of hyperplasia of the thyroid gland

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This disease is associated with impaired hormone production.

Doctors identify several factors that can cause thyroid hyperplasia:

  • receives a small amount of iodine;
  • in the body progresses diseases of infectious etiology;
  • has a diagnosed goiter Hashimoto;
  • use of hormone drugs that can inhibit the functionality of the thyroid gland;
  • diagnosed tumor of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland( not important - benign or malignant);
  • low level of immunity;
  • pregnancy;
  • is a hormonal disorder of a congenital nature.

The most common cause of the development of the disease in question is the inadequate intake of iodine in the body.Scientists and doctors believed that the production and popularization of iodized salt will solve the problem, but it still exists.

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In some cases, doctors can not find out the true cause of thyroid hyperplasia, and in this case it will be idiopathic disease - it is believed that the inflammatory processes in the organ can lead to it.

Predisposing factors to the development of thyroid hyperplasia:

  1. Age and gender of the person .It is believed that this pathology is inherent in women, increases the risk of its development during menopause.
  2. The presence of some diseases .It is believed that oncological and autoimmune diseases that are inherent in the family can become a provocation for the development of thyroid hyperplasia.
  3. Forced admission of medications.It has already been scientifically proven that the prolonged use of antidepressants and drugs that are actively used in psychiatric practice depress the activity of the thyroid gland and lead to hyperplasia.
  4. Radiation .Impact can be on work( the specificity of the profession) or in the treatment of an oncological disease.

Signs of hyperplasia of the thyroid gland

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It is noted that hyperplasia of the thyroid gland for a long time can be absolutely asymptomatic.The patient will not experience any unpleasant sensations until the body begins to actively increase.If no treatment of the disease in question is carried out, an increase in the thyroid leads to problems in the work of the respiratory system, it begins to exert pressure on nearby organs.

Symptoms of thyroid hyperplasia with an already existing organ increase:

  1. Problema-giperplazii Difficulty in swallowing .The enlarged gland compresses the esophagus and the patient first has difficulty in swallowing too hard food, and then can not even drink a pill.Patients complain of a constant feeling of "lump in the throat".
  2. Breathing problems .If the thyroid gland has increased in such a way that the trachea is squeezed, the patient will lack air at first only with physical exercises, and then at rest.
  3. The voice timbre is changed.This occurs in the case of pressure of the enlarged organ on the nerves that go to the vocal cords.The voice in this case can become more rasping, hoarse, and most often a similar symptom is observed in those people who are forced( due to their professional activities, for example) to talk a lot.
  4. The blood flow in the enlarged thyroid gland is broken .Pressure of blood vessels leads to the fact that a person begins to blush, feel the swelling of blood vessels, it becomes difficult for him to breathe.
  5. Pain. In whatever direction pressure is exerted by the enlarged thyroid, the patient will experience pain.In addition, he may develop bleeding when the vessel bursts under the influence of pressure - this condition will be characterized by a sudden increase in the thyroid gland and increasing problems with breathing.

In addition, the patient is constantly worried about coughing.

If the nodular hyperplasia of the thyroid gland develops, then additional symptoms may appear:

  • unmotivated increase in blood pressure;
  • regular sleep disorder;
  • panic attacks, irritability, depressive conditions;
  • fluctuations in weight - the patient then loses weight, then he recovers without applying any effort on his part.

All these symptoms can manifest themselves in different intensities, and this level depends on the stage at which the disease under consideration is.

Degrees of development of hyperplasia of the thyroid gland:

  • 0 degree - the process has just begun, the patient does not bother, there are no external manifestations of the disease, but hormonal changes already exist;
  • C_2-14 1 degree - it is impossible to outwardly notice the enlargement of the thyroid gland, but the doctor, when palpating the organ, will determine its larger than normal dimensions, and when swallowing marks the excision of the isthmus of the gland;
  • 2 degree - the organ has already been significantly enlarged and this is noticeably visible, all glands are released when swallowing;
  • 3 degree - changes occur in the appearance of the patient - the thyroid gland is greatly enlarged, this is noticeable, as is the deformation of the neck;
  • 4 degree - is considered a neglected disease, in which both the gland is visible enlarged with the naked eye, and the neck acquires other dimensions, and its deformation is too pronounced;Enlarged_shield-shaped_gear_1
  • 5 degree - compression of the trachea and esophagus occurs, pain and breathing problems occur.

Symptoms of thyroid hyperplasia in childhood

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No external changes occur in the child's disease, and blood tests for hormones are useless - the body is growing and it is almost impossible to accurately determine deviations from the norm. But there are some signs that may indicate a progression of the disease in question:

  • is clearly expressed as a child's lag in physical development;
  • in relation to peers suddenly appeared aggression and the child is not able to explain his behavior;
  • school performance is declining.

The diagnosis of hyperplasia of the thyroid gland is confirmed only by laboratory determination of the level of hormones in the blood.But here it is important not to be mistaken - it is necessary to take into account the age-related rates of production of this hormone by the thyroid gland.

How to treat thyroid hyperplasia

Diffuznaja_giperplazija Treatment of the considered disease is always selected individually and only after a complete examination of the patient.If the hyperplasia is at the early stages of its development and the enlargement of the thyroid gland is still imperceptible, then it will be quite possible to manage conservative treatment - the patient is prescribed hormone drugs.Such substitution therapy allows replenishing the body's lack of hormones produced by the thyroid gland.

Hormonal treatment of thyroid hyperplasia does not reduce the size of the organ, but stops the progression of the disease.If substitution therapy does not work, then the question of surgical intervention will be raised - surgeons simply remove the problem thyroid gland.

In addition, the operation is advisable to carry out with a strong increase in the thyroid gland, when the patient has problems with breathing and swallowing.

5086363-3 when a woman takes hormone drugs Please note: surgery for the removal of the thyroid gland is indicated if a doctor suspects a malignant etiology of the disease.According to statistics in 5% of cases of hyperplasia of the thyroid gland passes into a malignant tumor.

In some cases, as part of the treatment of this disease, doctors prescribe a course of taking radioactive iodine.The peculiarity of such treatment is the need to continue taking specific hormonal preparations for life.

It is often found that stopping the growth of the thyroid gland, reduce the already existing increase and restore the functionality of the body to the limits of the norm can only be properly selected nutrition.

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Hyperplasia of the thyroid gland is a benign disease.There is always the risk of switching to malignant, but modern medicine is ready to offer several methods of restoring health to such patients.If the diagnosis was carried out at an early stage, the doctors give a favorable prognosis - with proper treatment and compliance with all the recommendations / prescriptions of the doctor, the patients completely recover.

Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category


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