Iodine in the human body: action, sources of iodine, symptoms of iodine deficiency
Iodine is an indispensable trace element in the human body, the synthesis of which is absent.It is iodine "responsible" for the normal functioning of the thyroid gland and the production of hormones.Iodine enters the body from the outside - with food and liquids, with some medicines.Contents: How iodine is digested by the body How iodine deficiency in the body is manifested
According to statistics, the intake of iodine into the human body is as follows:
- 60% - products of animal origin;
- 3-5% - water;
- 30% - products of plant origin;3-5% air.
The body of a healthy person has an amazing ability to keep a constant concentration of iodine in the blood.Iodine deficiency is detected quite often - about one in four of the examined patient. What you need to know about the optimal amount of iodine in the body:
- for adults, the daily requirement for the microelement in question is 150-300 μg;
- in childhood, the daily norm is 400 μg;
- for pregnant and lactating women - 400 mcg;
- with a pronounced lack of iodine in the body should come at least 400 micrograms of microelement per day.
How iodine is metabolized by the body
Iodine is a trace element that belongs to the group of chemical compounds "halogens".The same group includes chlorine, bromine and fluorine, so the consumption of chlorinated water( it is just fed from the water system), treatment with drugs containing bromine and the intake of fluoride substances in the body reduces the amount of iodine.
Some products contain special substances that can block the reaction of iodine metabolism - they should not be combined with iodine-containing products.Such "problem" foods include rutabaga, cauliflower, radish, red cabbage, mustard, turnip.
Much better is the absorption of iodine, if simultaneously with it the body receives manganese, cobalt, copper, selenium.Doctors recommend eating foods that contain these trace elements, in combination with iodine-containing products.For example, will be an excellent solution to prepare a salad of sea kale and chicken eggs with selenium - the micronutrient in question will enter the body in the proper volume and be fully digested.
Often, with the appointment of a therapeutic treatment, doctors send a patient to a special examination that will show the level of iodine in the body.This is due to the fact that some drugs block the absorption of iodine - for example, Streptomycin, Erythromycin, Penicillin, Cordarone, Aspirin, some hormones, sulfanilamide group, Levomycetin.
Please note: if thermally treated products at high temperature, then 50% of iodine will be destroyed.Doctors recommend iodine-containing foods not to fry, but to boil or stew. Salt, enriched with iodine, should be added to the already prepared dish, then it will make sense.
shows a lack of iodine. Half of all iodine that has entered the body is absorbed by the thyroid gland, as this microelement is involved in the process of producing two hormones: thyroxine and triiodothyronine. These hormones ensure the normal functioning of the heart, organs of the gastrointestinal tract, brain, skin.Therefore, the lack of iodine in the body manifests itself almost immediately.
It is believed that the primary symptomatology of iodine deficiency in the body is disguised as dystonia and the person complains about:
- malaise and general weakness;
- depressed mood;
- frequent colds.
During this period, iodine deficiency is not yet at a dangerous level, because the body "scoops" this trace element from the thyroid gland.
Specific symptoms of
As the condition under consideration increases, the thyroid gland becomes compensatory, then the dysfunction of this organ develops and pronounced symptoms appear. Specific signs of iodine deficiency in the body include:
- Impossibility to become pregnant or miscarriages in the early stages of pregnancy.This condition is a consequence of an imbalance of hormones in the thyroid gland.
- Obesity.Excess body weight appears due to a decrease in the rate of metabolic processes and a person gaining pounds of weight even when dieting.
- Mental disorders.With a lack of iodine, a person's memory worsens, concentration of attention decreases, problems with orientation in space can arise.Apathy and drowsiness.Such symptoms are clearly visible to others, they are often perceived as depression or banal fatigue.Meanwhile, drowsiness and apathy literally force a person to change their way of life.
Note: if iodine deficiency is present in children, it can lead to the development of cretinism, which is characterized by mental retardation, delay in physical development, dwarfism and disbalance of body proportions.
How to eliminate iodine deficiency in the body
You can correct iodine levels in the body in two ways:
- using products and liquids that contain a sufficient amount of the trace element;
- using medicines.
In any case, if there is a suspicion of iodine deficiency, self-medication is strictly prohibited. The best option will be an address to a therapist who will conduct an initial examination, give a referral to an endocrinologist and then, in tandem, these specialists will select an effective way to combat iodine deficiency in a particular patient.
Foods rich in iodine
As a rule, representatives of marine life include
- Laminaria( sea kale).This seaweed in an amount of only 100 grams completely covers the daily dose of iodine for humans.This does not mean that this product should be consumed on a daily basis, because the micronutrient in question is also contained in other products, and the intake of too much iodine can also have a negative effect on health.
- Shrimp, mussels, sea fish.In principle, to the useful products in terms of iodine content can be attributed to absolutely all representatives of marine fauna.They should be present in the menu at least 2 times a week.
If you consider more familiar foods, then products that contain enough iodine include spinach, red meat, black currants, tomatoes, chokeberry, potatoes, bananas and peas, milk and eggs.
Note : Traditional medicine offers a simple way of replenishing the stock of iodine in the body - eating apples( seeds).It is believed that 5 of these seeds are enough to meet the daily requirement of the body in iodine, but still it is not necessary to abuse this method - firstly, these seeds contain poisonous hydrocyanic acid, and secondly - to solve the problem of iodine deficiency is necessary only under the supervision of a doctor.
If you know which products contain iodine, you can make a menu that will quickly eliminate the iodine deficiency in the body. Here are just some indicators( the amount of iodine is indicated per 100 grams of the product): ( better hide under cat)
- haddock - 420 mcg;
- cod - 135 mcg;
- sea bass - 80 mkg;
- herring / oysters / tuna - 50 mcg;
- shrimp - 110 mcg;
- cod liver - 350 mcg;
- sardines - 35 mcg;
- flounder - 190 mcg;
- milk and eggs - 20 mcg;
- salmon - 260 mcg;
- bread and bakery products - 3-8 μg;
- sea kale - 200 mcg;
- spinach - 12-20 mcg;
- pike / catfish / trout / pike perch - 5 mcg;
- beans - 12 μg;
- chickens / ducks / geese - 5 mcg;
- apples with grains and feijoa - 70 mcg;
- pork / beef - 7 mcg;
- persimmon - 30 mcg;
- butter / cheese / kefir - 11 μg;
- onion / carrot / potato / cucumber / corn - 5 mcg;
- Hercules - 6 μg;
- garlic / radish / grapes / chokeberry - 8 mcg;
- pears / apricots / peaches / cherries - 2 mcg.
It should be taken into account that 50% of iodine disappears when heat treatment of products, and in order not to be mistaken in the preparation of a diet from products rich in iodine, you need to know the daily norms of this trace element:
- children under 1 year - 40-60Mcg;
- children's age 1-3 years - 70 mkg;
- children age 3-7 years - 100 mcg;
- children age 7-11 years - 120 mcg;
- children age 11-14 years - 130 mcg;
- adolescents 14-18 years - 150 mcg;
- adults( over 18 years of age) - 150-300 mcg;
- pregnant and lactating women - an average of 300 mcg.
As the problem of iodine deficiency has already acquired global proportions, people have learned to prepare products artificially enriched with iodine.The most famous such product is iodized salt. To make it really useful, you need to know some of the features of this product:
- useful properties of iodized salt persist for 3-4 months from the date of product release;
- iodine immediately disappears from salt during boiling - this spice should be added only to ready-made meals;
- should not allow the product to get wet or stored in an open container - most of the iodine will evaporate;
- iodized salt can not be used for conservation.
Mineral waters with iodine
The use of mineral waters with natural iodine in the composition is an excellent solution to eliminate the condition under consideration.Such useful waters include Arkhyz, Eliseevskaya, Gornaya, Lysogorskaya and others.
Be sure to keep in mind that such mineral water with iodine has certain contraindications to use, so you should consult a doctor beforehand.
The modern pharmacological industry produces quite a lot of preparations and dietary supplements with iodine, with a difference only in the trade name and the amount of iodine. The most popular are Jodomarine, Potassium Iodide, Iodobalance, Antistrum. Similar drugs are prescribed for a course appointment, it is mandatory, after finishing iodine medication, the doctor should check blood and thyroid hormones.
In addition, in order to eliminate the shortage of iodine in the body, doctors recommend using vitamin-mineral complexes that will have a complex effect on the body.These include Vitrum, the Alphabet.
The lack of iodine in the body is quite a dangerous condition, which can lead to a significant deterioration in health, to the malfunctioning of all organs and systems.It is not at all difficult to replenish the level of iodine, but it is even easier to prevent this, to take preventive measures.Just one visit to a specialist, and a lack of iodine can be avoided.
Konev Alexander, Therapeutist