Prostate cancer: symptoms, treatment methods, prognosis
Statistically, prostate cancer( prostate cancer) is diagnosed in 14% of cases - most often with this diagnosis are men aged 50 years.The same disease is the cause of death of men in early age in 73% of cases.Such a sad statistic makes regular monitoring of the health and functionality of the prostate gland necessary.What symptoms will indicate the development of pathology in the prostate gland, what measures the man will need to take in such a case and how modern medicine treats prostate cancer - these questions will be answered in the material presented.Table of Contents: Causes of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Stages Symptoms of Prostate Cancer Treatment of Prostate Cancer
Causes of Prostate Cancer( prostate)
Studies of the disease in question have concluded that the chances of developing prostate cancer directlyDepend on the level of testosterone in the body of a man - the higher it is, the greater the chance. In general, doctors identify several factors that can be a "push" for the development of cancer:
- genetic predisposition - if there were cases of prostate cancer in the genus, this probability will be also traced in offspring with a probability of 90%;
- prostate adenoma, which proceeds in a chronic and progressive form;
- advanced age;
- violation of diet and diet;
- contacting with cadmium - more often this happens when working in hazardous production;
- is a bad ecological situation in the region of residence.
There is no one specific reason for the development of prostate cancer - all men after 50 years of age are at risk.
Stages of prostate cancer
This disease develops gradually gradually and for several years there may not be any symptoms at all, which leads to such a high mortality among patients.But even in the absence of symptoms, there may already be metastases - this is a feature of prostate cancer.
1 stage of prostate cancer
When examining the prostate( palpation), it is impossible to detect any tumor, and any changes( for example, in the structure of the prostate tissue or in its shape and size) are so insignificant that can be determinedOnly in the laboratory study of a fragment of the organ.
A tumor of a malignant nature has a localization strictly in the prostate gland, and the boundaries of the organ are not enlarged, they are within the normal range.
2 stage of prostate cancer
Already with the help of conventional ultrasound can detect neoplasm in the prostate gland.It is noteworthy that the malignant tumor does not leave the prostate gland.
3 stage of prostate cancer
Tumor grows in the tissues of neighboring organs, pathological damage of seminal vesicles is more often noted.A large spread of the malignant tumor is not yet detected.
4th stage of prostate
Cancer metastases are detected in the liver, lungs, bones of the skeleton and lymph nodes.The tumor is far beyond the prostate gland.
Note: setting the stage of the disease in question is very important for further treatment.On how much prostate cancer is common, the choice of methods of treatment will depend.
Oncologists in the examination of a patient with already diagnosed prostate cancer, and the degree of development of the disease.
The early stage of the development of the disease under consideration, when the tumor tissues are no different from healthy tissues - the diagnosis is very difficult, but possible.
Uniformity of prostate tissue cells is not present - some look absolutely healthy, while others clearly have pathological inclusions.
3 and 4 degree
Uniformity of cells is not present, at inspection various cells - both healthy, and already amazed with a malignant disease are revealed.
Cells of the prostate gland are atypical( absolutely everything).
If the doctor diagnosed prostate cancer, took a tissue fragment of the organ for histological examination in the laboratory, then it will be necessary to conduct a number of additional studies. The following are mandatory:
- ultrasound examination of the prostate by penetrating it through the rectum;
- magnetic resonance imaging of the skeleton of the pelvic part - helps to detect the spread of cancer cells into bone tissue;
- magnetic resonance imaging by rectal probe;
- rectal palpation of the prostate;
- examination of lymph nodes to identify or deny the presence of cancer cells.
Symptoms of prostate cancerRecommended reading:
The greatest danger of the disease under consideration is its asymptomatic course in the early stages, which automatically makes diagnosis difficult.Therefore, it is important for men to know and remember both primary and secondary signs of prostate cancer.
Symptoms of prostate cancer at an early stage of development:
- in the prostate region, there is a recurrent pain;
- in urine and semen there may be blood inclusions;
- jet with urination will be characterized by low head and intermittency;
- at night, urination becomes frequent.
Symptoms of prostate cancer in progression:
- bones of the pelvis, the spine and hips are constantly aching;
- frequent fractures of bones occur;
- is a delayed urination of a violent nature;
- often occurs in the chest;
- sharp slimming of the patient in the absence of any predisposing factors to this;
- skin color becomes earthy;
- is a constant weakness and a feeling of chronic fatigue.
With any, even minor, changes in the direction of urination or with the appearance of the above syndromes, one should immediately seek help from specialists - the earlier the competent and accurate diagnosis is made, the earlier treatment will begin.
Treatment of prostate cancer
In general, for the treatment of any cancer, doctors use three methods of treatment:
- drug therapy;
- surgical intervention;Radiation exposure of a radioactive nature.
What method will be assigned to a specific patient with a diagnosis of prostate cancer, only the oncologist decides - everything depends on the stage and extent of the disease, the age of the patient, the concomitant diseases.
It is intended to administer cancer chemotherapy to a patient - chemotherapy.The use of chemical drugs is prescribed only if prostate cancer has been diagnosed at a late stage of development, a relapse after a previous successful treatment, or other medication has not yielded positive results.
Chemotherapy is performed in cycles of 3 to 6 months, after each administration of the drug, the patient gives time for recovery.It is very important to understand that chemical preparations destroy not only cancer cells, but absolutely healthy ones. This effect leads to the development of intense side effects:
- hair loss;
- mucosal disorders of the oral cavity;
- nausea and vomiting immediately after the treatment cycle;
The most dangerous thing is that the drugs used for chemotherapy destroy the bone marrow, which is manifested by a decrease in the level of leukocytes, platelets and erythrocytes with hemoglobin.The result is a high risk of infection, the appearance of bruising and bruising, even with a slight physical impact on the skin, anemia, loss of strength.
Note: as soon as chemotherapy is discontinued, all side effects disappear without a trace.With a favorable prognosis, all body functions are restored and normalized.
Separately, it is worth considering and the appointment of hormonal drugs - it is unlikely that such therapy can be attributed to the most effective methods of treating prostate cancer, but it is necessary at certain stages of the disease. What is included in the concept of hormonal therapy for diagnosed prostate cancer:
- The administration of drugs that block the production of testosterone - Goselerin, Lupron or Tryptorelin.These medications are administered to the patient every 30 days, in some cases less often.
- Introduction of antiandrogens, which block the action of testosterone on the prostate gland - Flutamide, Bicalutamide or Nilutamide.The first 4 months, these funds are prescribed simultaneously with agonists.
- Estrogen therapy, the feature of which is high efficiency.The only nuance is precisely this method characterized by numerous side effects: myocardial infarction, thromboembolism, disruption of the gastrointestinal tract, chronic edema.
Note: modern medicine does not consider it expedient to conduct hormonal therapy in the early stages of prostate cancer development - the efficiency in this case will be almost zero.
This is an internal radiotherapy that is used only in the early stages of prostate cancer.The essence of the method consists in introducing granules of radioactive iodine with a special needle into the prostate gland( in one procedure from 40 to 100 pieces - at the discretion of the attending physician).It is thanks to this "point" effect on the sick iron that a good effect is achieved - and cancer cells die, and there is no harmful effect on healthy cells / tissues.
Note: granules of radioactive iodine decay after 1.5 - 2 months.And the procedure is performed by specialists on an outpatient basis for one hour.
Possible side effects of brachytherapy:
- increased urination.
Note: no methods of traditional medicine can not help cope with the disease.In no case can you rely on healers, healers and "grandmothers", it is about the life of the patient.
Nutrition in the treatment of prostate cancer
It is very important to follow the rules of nutrition when carrying out various therapies directed against prostate cancer.
When carrying out chemotherapy, the following menu selection rules should be adhered to:
- Milk and its derivatives - kefir, cream, sour cream, cottage cheese, fermented milk and yogurt must be present;
- it is important to consume protein foods - meat and fish in a boiled or baked form will give strength to the body for recovery;
- vegetables, fruits and cereals - in any form you need to eat every day, in some cases you can spend the whole day only on fruits or only on vegetables.
Note: most often after a regular course of chemotherapy, the patient loses appetite and refuses any food.This is wrong - you need to maximize the diversity of the menu, monitor the frequent intake of food, but in small quantities.
When appointing radiation therapy, the patient must enter the following products into his diet:
- sweet fruit compotes and mineral water;
- whole milk;
- whole-grain porridge;
- melons and watermelons;
- fruit and vegetable dishes.
If hormonal therapy is used, then acute, fatty and salty meals are excluded from the patient's diet.
Prostate cancer is a dangerous disease characterized by a prolonged course of the asymptomatic period and rapid development in the future.Doctors insist on a regular visit to the andrologist by men after 45 years - this will help to identify prostate cancer at an early stage of development, which at times increases the chances of a successful outcome.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category