28th week of pregnancy: description, photo, test of fetal movements, rhesus-conflict
Apr 28, 2018
Under the old legislation, the fetus was considered viable from the 28th week of gestational age.However, the tremendous achievements in medicine led to the fact that the child can successfully exit, even if he is born on the 6th month of pregnancy. It should be noted that every week of intrauterine life crumbs increases its chance of life.So, at a period of 24-25 weeks, this chance is 40-70%, and from 28 weeks - 90 and more percent.Therefore, if there are any serious complications of pregnancy, doctors in all possible ways try to move this cherished border - 28 weeks.Table of contents: Toddler at 28th week of pregnancy Feeling of a future mother How does the abdomen grow at the 28th week of pregnancy? Planned visit to the gynecologist. Fetal movement tests. Possible complications: Rh-conflict. Legal issues: maternity leave at double
. Babe at week 28 of pregnancy.
The weight of the fetus on the 28th week is on the average 1-1.2 kg, the height is 35-36 cm. Some babies grow and recover a little faster or vice versa - the genes can already show themselves in the trimester.If a woman is waiting for twins or triplets, the mass and growth of crumbs may be smaller, and significantly.
28 week is significant in that the fetus begins to open the eyes well, the pupillary membrane disappears from the surface and the color of the iris becomes noticeable. By the way, he at all children before a birth approximately identical - gray-blue( at someone is more dark, at someone is more light).Finally, the color of the iris will be established only a few months after the appearance of the baby.
On the 28th week the maturation of the endocrine system of the fetus continues. Almost all the hormone-producing organs of crumbs are already functioning, forming their own type of metabolism. If a pregnant woman has problems with the endocrine system, the child may even partially take on the synthesis of missing hormones. It is clear that for his little unripened organism it is quite difficult, therefore the future mother must necessarily monitor her health and undergo the necessary examinations: tests for the detection of diabetes mellitus, thyroid hormones, if there are indications, etc. Timely correction of endocrine disorders in a woman, will allow her to safely endure a healthy child.
State of health of the future mother
If at the end of the first beginning of the second trimester the state of health of a pregnant woman improved with each week, then in the third trimester everything is the opposite.The increase in the period of pregnancy is accompanied by an increase in the uterus and the appearance of new health problems.And in this there is nothing pathological - a woman's body can not immediately adjust to all the changes taking place.
The most common troubles of the 28th week of pregnancy include:
- Back pain. Solutions: a special bandage for pregnant women, swimming, performing exercises for the spine on a large ball, a full rest.
- Swelling of the feet and hands. To improve the outflow of fluids, if you rest, raise your legs, regularly do warm-up for the feet and hands, do not sit in one pose for a long time.
- Heartburn. It is adjusted by means of a diet and habits at once to not lay down in a bed after meal.
- Urinary incontinence. Discomfort from this problem can be eliminated with the help of sanitary napkins, but the very problem - with the help of special exercises to strengthen the pelvic muscles( Kegel exercises) and more frequent trips to the toilet.Severe sweating, rash.
- . The emergence of these troubles requires more personal hygiene and wearing only of natural fabrics.
- Itching of the skin of the stomach. Skin stretching is accompanied by itching, for the relief of which it is necessary to use nutritious and moisturizing lotions for the body more often.In addition, there are special means for pregnant women - they solve not only the problem of itching, but also the problem of stretch marks.
- Constipation. You can normalize the stool with a diet - for expectant mothers this is the most acceptable method.
- Hemorrhoids. It is best to consult with your gynecologist about hemorrhoids, since it is unlikely to be able to ease the condition without special medications.
- Cramps of the calf muscles. You need to eat more foods that contain calcium.
- Bleeding gums. During pregnancy, oral hygiene requires special attention, especially if there are any problems.It is advisable to discuss everything with the dentist.
- Insomnia. To improve the process of falling asleep, it is necessary to well ventilate the bedroom, put under the back and abdomen cushions.In some situations, a doctor can prescribe a hypnotic drug safe for expectant mothers.
- Varicose veins. To prevent the disease from progressing, it is necessary to wear special compression underwear, do a contrast shower for the legs, lift them as soon as possible, try to move more and not stand for a long time.
How the belly grows at the 28th week of pregnancy
The abdominal parameters should increase by 1 cm compared to the previous week. To monitor the dynamics of increasing the height of the standing of the uterus, the gynecologist maintains a special schedule - the gravidogram ,Pregnant woman.The goal is the timely detection of intrauterine growth retardation.Only having a gravidogram( it starts from the 20th week of pregnancy), the doctor can see that the abdomen has abruptly stopped growing, or on the contrary started to grow faster, which is also characteristic for a number of pathological conditions.
Routine visit to the gynecologist
From 28 weeks to go to the gynecologist will have more often - at least 2 times a month.Before each visit, as before, it will be necessary to give a general analysis of urine. Upon examination, the gynecologist will measure the patient's blood pressure, weight, stomach parameters, and listen to the fetal heartbeat.If any deviations from the baby's side are revealed, the doctor will send the woman to the ultrasound with mandatory dopplerometry of the blood flow between the uterus, placenta and fetus.At later terms, CTG and the biophysical profile of the fetus will be added to this examination.
Fetal gesture test
At the 28th week, the expectant mother starts to conduct a special tablet - a test of fetal movements. It is issued in a women's consultation.Why is it necessary?It is believed that from this time the pregnant woman should normally feel at least 10 strong movements of the baby within 12 hours. Every tenth impulse a woman should mark in the schedule opposite to the time when it felt( on this the tracking is suspended until the next day).If the movements are less than 10, it is worth informing the doctor about it.
The long silence of the baby does not always indicate that something is wrong.Perhaps in a hurry and day-to-day vanity, his movements were simply ignored.Doctors advise in such situations a woman to have a snack( you can candy with tea, a glass of milk), it is convenient to lie on your left side and concentrate on what is happening in the stomach.If the baby starts to kick, then everything is fine.
In addition to the number of movements, the importance of the movement of the baby. The children in the womb already have their own biorhythm and temperament.Some crumbs are very active, others are less mobile. If the baby-litter suddenly becomes quiet and makes itself felt by subtle jerks, it is necessary to show the doctor.To address to the gynecologist costs also if the fetus became very active and from its overturns the future mum can not easy sit or lie.
Possible complications: Rh rhesus conflict
One of the most serious complications of pregnancy is Rh-conflict between mother and fetus.This condition occurs in one case: if a woman has a Rh factor negative, and the child took a positive factor from the pope.What is dangerous for Rhesus-conflict?
In women with negative Rh factor on the surface of red blood cells there are no special antigen proteins.Therefore, if the erythrocytes of the baby, carrying the Rh factor, enter the mother's bloodstream, the mother's immune system starts to defend itself - it triggers a reaction during which antibodies against children's erythrocytes are formed in the blood.These antibodies can do great harm, as they penetrate the hematoplacental barrier.Under their action, massive destruction of erythrocytes occurs in the blood vessels of the crumbs, which causes oxygen starvation of the fetus and a number of other serious disorders. If the appropriate measures are not taken in time, the baby may even die.
Massive transition of children's erythrocytes into the mother's bloodstream occurs in the following situations:
- during labor, cesarean section, abortion;
- for miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, placental abruption;
- with severe gestosis;
- for invasive procedures - amniocentesis and others.
After such contact in the female body, cells of immune memory are formed, ready in case of a re-encounter with antigens( in this case with the Rh factor) to activate the process of producing antibodies.
To prevent rhesus conflict in subsequent pregnancies, doctors administer a special drug - antiresusive serum - in the first hours after childbirth, abortion or miscarriage.She connects the baby's red blood cells in the mother's blood, not allowing them to run an immune response.The same drug is found after such interventions as amniocentesis, as well as with placental abruption and bleeding( while maintaining pregnancy).
Pregnant women at risk of Rhesus Conflict should be screened regularly for the presence of antibodies against the Rh factor in the blood.If antibodies are not found at the 28-week period, antiresusive serum is injected into the future mother, since in the third trimester the risk of getting into the female blood flow of fruit red blood cells is significantly increased.
Legal issues: maternity leave with a double
According to the Russian legislation, expectant mothers expecting two or more children from the 28th week are given a maternity card for maternity leave for 194 calendar days( this hospital is paid in the amount of 100% of the average earnings). In Ukraine, all pregnant women are sent to maternity leave from 30 weeks, regardless of the number of toddlers.Recommended to read:
Zubkova Olga Sergeevna, medical reviewer, epidemiologist