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31 weeks of pregnancy: fetal development, dew and weight, well-being of the expectant mother

The first week of pregnancy - the beginning of maternity leave .

31_wednesday

.Now the future mother will have plenty of time to relax, take classes, visit doctors and courses for pregnant women, undergo diagnostic tests, choose a maternity hospital, purchase everything necessary for birth and prepare a dowry for the baby.Of these, the most important is, of course, rest and taking care of one's health. Table of contents: Fetal development at 31 weeks of gestation What happens with mom at 31 weeks Dimension of the abdomen and weight of a woman How to prevent complications?Analyzes and studies Recommendations

Fetal development at 31 weeks of gestation

The fetus continues to grow actively.Now his weight is about 1.5 kg, and height - 40 cm. For each following week, the crumb will gain an average of 200 g and grow 1 cm.

31_weekly

No special external changes at week 31 - the baby is slowly on the moveObozavoditsya subcutaneous fat and hairs.The white fat layer under the skin and brown along the spine, around the kidneys and scapula, not only ensures the roundness of the crumbs, but also contributes to the preservation of heat in the body of the newborn.If the baby is born prematurely, it can not maintain a constant body temperature, so these babies must be placed in special incubators, in which it is warm and comfortable.

The third trimester of intrauterine life is the final stage of maturation of the internal organs of the fetus.Many systems are already fully functioning, but lungs, gastrointestinal tract can earn only after the birth of a crumb.

pregnancy The fetal brain continues to grow in size.In its thickness there is an active formation of neural connections and differentiation of the activity of nerve centers responsible for the functioning of the organism( breathing, blood circulation, thermoregulation, etc.). If a baby is born now, the likelihood that he will survive is very high, but for this he will need special care, special equipment and medical therapy.

The Kid is still most of the time asleep.Well, when it wakes up, the expectant mother will immediately know about it by jerking the legs under the ribs. By the way, most children by the 31st week occupy a stable position in the uterus with the head down. If the baby is still spinning back and forth, doctors recommend that the patients go swimming and perform special exercises so that the fetus takes the right position.

What happens to the mother at the 31st week of pregnancy

At 31 weeks of pregnancy, due to an even larger increase in uterine size and hormonal surges, expectant mothers feel worse and some health problems worsen:

  • It's difficult to empty the bowels and periodicallyThe stomach is swollen.
  • pregnancy Constantly excruciating heartburn.
  • Urination is more frequent.
  • Urine is released.
  • The legs are swollen at the end of the day.
  • Pursues a feeling of heat.
  • Appears shortness of breath.
  • The head is spinning( dizziness is especially pronounced with a sharp rise from the bed and a prolonged stay on the legs).
  • The back is hurting.If the uterus begins to squeeze the nerve roots, it is possible to develop radicular syndrome, which is accompanied by severe pain in the lower back, a pelvis and numbness of the toes.

In addition, expectant mothers are often concerned about insomnia.If the baby shows increased activity at night, the pregnant woman can not get enough sleep.Such chronic lack of sleep is fraught with the appearance of headaches, feelings of weakness and weakness, irregular blood pressure.

At the 31st week of pregnancy, many expectant mothers notice an increase in colostrum production: it not only excels when pressing on the nipple, but without any effect on the mammary gland.In such situations it is desirable to put special pads into the bra.

Training bouts( Braxton-Hicks fights) are becoming more tangible. And this is quite normal - the uterus is preparing for childbirth.However, such a reduction in myometrium should not be accompanied by pain, bleeding, or discharge of fluid from the vagina.

Belly size and weight of the woman at 31 weeks of gestation

By the 31st week of pregnancy, the expectant mother can gain from 6 to 11 kg. Here everything is individual: for women with a high body mass index( obese), the increase should be minimal, but the slender mummies can recover by 10-12 kg, but no more. Excessive fullness of a pregnant woman leads to a number of negative consequences:

  • Difficulties of movement.
  • The load on the heart increases, which in future mothers and so works very tightly.
  • The fetus is greatly recovered, so there may be difficulties in childbirth.AsD12ASD
  • Develop metabolic disorders.

31-weeks

Weekly weight gain after 31 weeks should be 250-300 g( 180-200 g of this weight is due to increase the mass of the baby).If the increase is 500 grams or more, the doctor may suspect the appearance of internal edema, characteristic of gestosis.

Together with the weight of the future mother, the abdomen also increases - approximately 1 cm along the circumference.The uterus rises higher: at the 31st week its bottom is in the middle between the navel and the breastbone( 32 cm above the frontal articulation). A gynecologist always pays attention to whether these parameters increase in dynamics.If they stand still for several weeks, the doctor may suspect fetal hypotrophy or malignancy.If, on the contrary, the uterus and abdomen grow too fast, there may be a polyhydramniosa, which is also a prognostically unfavorable sign.

How to prevent complications?

If the expectant mother is healthy, takes care of herself and follows all the doctor's recommendations, the risk of developing complications at her 31st week of pregnancy is minimal.The following factors can provoke the appearance of problems:

  • Stresses. Under the action of stress hormones, the vessels narrow, the myometrium shrinks, which leads to placental abruption.Excessive physical activity. . .At this time it is not desirable to walk and run fast, jump, lift weights, ride a bicycle, stand for a long time, lie on your back.Of the physical exercises you need to choose those that relax the ligaments and spine and prepare the pelvic floor muscles for childbirth.
  • Falls. Therefore, the future mother should forget about the heels, walks without accompanying to the ice, washing chandeliers and windows, hanging curtains and cleaning on the mezzanines.
  • Infectious diseases .And the danger is absolutely all infections.They can provoke inflammation of the kidneys and genitals, infection of the membranes and the baby, as well as cause premature birth and lead to a number of other serious complications.
  • Bad habits of the .Smoking women significantly increase the risk of developing varicose veins, gestosis, placental abruption.
  • Medicinal products .A future mother can not know all the drugs prohibited in her position, so even an ordinary cold she should be treated under the guidance of a doctor.
  • The violent intimate life of .During pregnancy it is impossible to change sexual partners( each of them is a potential source of infections) and choose poses with deep penetration and pressure on the abdomen.
  • Improper power supply. Because of insufficient intake of the future mother of nutrients in the body, various pathological conditions can develop in her and in the baby.

Analyzes and studies

Fetal size At week 31, according to the plan, only a general urine test is performed, and if there is a visit to the doctor.All other tests are assigned according to individual indications. The future mum should keep a map of the fetal movements and monitor blood pressure, and if something goes wrong, contact your gynecologist.

At 32-34 weeks, all future mothers will need to undergo a third ultrasound study, supplemented with dopplerometry.The main tasks of this ultrasound are:

  • Refinement of the physical condition of the fetus( size, condition of internal organs).
  • Evaluation of the functions of the placenta.
  • Blood flow check in the uterus-placenta-fetus system.

Recommendations

At 31 and subsequent weeks of pregnancy, the most important thing for a future mother is a full rest. A pregnant woman should get enough sleep at night and be sure to rest for several hours during the day.Fortunately, at the 31st week, when the decree began, there are no obstacles.

child During sleep and rest, it is desirable to lie on one side, in the daytime it is possible and half-sitting, laying something under your feet. To improve sleep, it is necessary to well ventilate the bedroom and try not to eat up at dinner.Sit back in bed will help special pillows for pregnant women.

In the last months of pregnancy, expectant moms are often aggravated with bowel problems, so nutrition should now be given special attention. Every day on the table women should have vegetables, cereals, kefir, cottage cheese, dried fruits and other products that help purify the digestive tract.If you suffer from heartburn, it is desirable for the expectant mother to completely eliminate from her diet acute and fatty foods, pickled vegetables, citrus and tomato juices, carbonated water, coffee. It is necessary to eat nutritionally, after a meal you can not go to bed immediately or exercise.

To better feel and provide the baby with enough oxygen, the expectant mother should spend a lot of time on air, away from dusty streets.Unhurried walks in the park and trips outside the city are useful. However, it should be noted that wherever the pregnant woman is going to, her passport must contain a passport, an exchange card and a generic certificate. Births can start suddenly, and the listed documents will allow a woman to minimize problems when filing with a medical institution.

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Zubkova Olga Sergeevna, medical reviewer, epidemiologist


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