Malaria: Causes, Symptoms, Prevention and Treatment of Disease
As already mentioned, mosquitoes are the carrier of malaria. They carry plasmodia. Some of their species can develop and exist at lower temperatures, which gives them some advantages over other protozoa. In the life cycle of the plasmodium malaria, a person and a mosquito are involved. In the body, the pathogen passes through several stages of development. When a mosquito drinks the blood of a sick person, then plasmodium penetrates to it. Further plasmodia enters the stomach, where it multiplies and then accumulates in the saliva of a mosquito. Through the saliva of the mosquito, the plasmodium enters the human blood with a bite.
With the blood of the plasmodium is transferred to the human liver and there it undergoes a number of changes, as a result of which many merozoites multiply in the human body, leaving the liver cells, attach to the red blood cells and enter them. As a result, gametocytes are formed in the blood of an infected person, and a person becomes a carrier of malaria. Malaria can be transmitted through the placenta from mother to fetus. Also, a person can become infected through donor blood.
Symptoms of the disease
The infected person very quickly feels the first symptoms of the disease. These symptoms include: fever, chills, vomiting, pain in the joints, convulsions, a decrease in hemoglobin in the blood, the appearance of hemoglobin in the urine. Sometimes the patient develop tingling sensations on the skin. Upon examination, the doctor discovers that the spleen is enlarged. The patient complains of a severe headache. This is due to the fact that the blood supply to the brain is impaired. If you do not start treating malaria in time, the person will die. Most often, the disease kills children and pregnant women.
To confirm the diagnosis, the doctor must prescribe tests. The patient is taken a blood test for the presence of pathogens. Next, take two smears - a thin smear and a thick drop. In a drop, you can analyze a large volume of blood, so in this analysis it is easier to identify plasmodium. To determine the type of pathogen, a thin smear is needed. Microscopic examination of blood is not always effective, because it is difficult to identify immature forms of the pathogen.
Modern special diagnostic tests based on immunochemical reactions can identify the causative agent of infection in a very short period of time. However, such a study is very expensive.
Types of the disease
The course of the disease, as well as the further prognosis for recovery for the patient depends on the type of pathogen. Tropical malaria is considered the most dangerous form of the disease. It very often causes complications that lead to death.
Four-day malaria is paroxysmal. Symptoms of the disease appear every 72 hours. Three-day malaria is similar in its symptoms to oval malaria. It also has a paroxysmal character - seizures appear every 40-48 hours.
Each form of malaria has its own duration of the incubation period, differs in the duration of stages of the life cycle of parasites, and is also accompanied by various symptoms and course of the disease.
Treatment of disease
Most often, doctors treat malaria with quinine. Depending on the development of resistance of pathogens, doctors prescribe other drugs. The best combination is with preparations combined with artemisinin. But even despite WHO recommendations, in Russia such drugs are not used to treat malaria.
To date, doctors are studying new medicines against malaria. Clinical trials on animals are conducted.
In order to prevent malaria, doctors prescribe drug therapy. In addition, it is necessary to destroy mosquitoes that are carriers of the disease. To destroy mosquitoes, you can use various means. Unfortunately, scientists have not yet managed to develop an inoculation against malaria, but scientific research is being carried out in this direction.
For the prevention of the disease, the same medicines are used, which are also used to treat malaria. However, in order to prevent the dose of these drugs is much less. Doctors prescribe to take such drugs every day. Such drugs have a number of side effects, and the price is high, so they are accepted only by those people who temporarily stay in a territory with a high risk of contracting malaria. Local residents use national means for preventive purposes. It is worth noting the fact that medicines become ineffective for treatment if a person took them earlier in small doses.
Preparations based on artimizinin are not suitable for the prevention of malaria, they are used only to treat the disease. It is very important to begin taking preventive drugs several weeks before entering the country where you can get malaria. Continue to take such medications from one week to one month.
The oldest remedy for malaria is quinine. However, in modern medicine it is prescribed for treatment, and not for the prevention of malaria. For prevention, doctors prescribe chloroquine, acrichine, primaquine and more modern drugs: doxycycline, mefloquine and atovaquone - proguanil hydrochloride.
Treatment of malaria with folk remedies
Very often, residents of countries where malaria is prevalent use folk remedies to prevent and treat diseases. Well-proven means such as orange peel and willow bark. In crushed peel of orange contains a substance similar to quinine. To get rid of the symptoms of the disease, it is necessary several times a day to eat crushed orange peel.
Willow bark is prepared in the following way: one teaspoon of bark is poured into 1.5 cups of water and evaporated over low heat until the liquid is reduced to 200 ml. For taste in the broth add honey. This broth should be taken on an empty stomach before breakfast for several days.
Black radish juice is also used for treatment. It is necessary to take the juice of black radish and vodka in the proportions of 1: 1.For a day the patient should drink all three tinctures in three sets( 1/3 cup at a time).The next day in the morning on an empty stomach patient must drink a glass. After receiving such a remedy, the patient begins vomiting. After a while, the person completely recovers.
Bad Baby also helps with malaria and fever. You need to take four teaspoons of badjan and pour them a glass of boiling water. The drug should be infused for a couple of hours, after which the infusion should be taken three times a day for three tablespoons.
Malarial fever helps to remove the agent from mustard. It is necessary to take half a teaspoon of mustard and pour it with a glass of wine, then you need to add a pinch of salt. The mixture is given to the patient three times a day.