Signs, diagnosis and treatment of cerebral palsy
Cerebral Palsy( CP) - heavy and insidious disease, as doctors can not immediately identify it.Difficulties with diagnostics arise due to the fact that in the first year of life the motor activity of small patients can not always be adequately assessed.In addition, these children are characterized by transient disorders of muscle tone and passing neurological disorders.
It is important to regularly inspect all grudnichki neurologist and pediatrician, especially if they have a history of factors that can trigger cerebral palsy.On examinations to specialists it is advisable to go monthly.Parents should also monitor the health of the child.Any changes in the condition of the baby should be announced to the doctor at the next appointment.Contents: Stages of Development Cerebral Palsy Symptoms Cerebral Palsy Prognosis of Cerebral Palsy Diagnosis of Cerebral Palsy The principles of treatment of cerebral palsy Child development with Cerebral Palsy Prevention Cerebral Palsy
Stages of development of cerebral palsy
in the development of the disease are three stages:
- Early , whichLasts about 5 months.At this stage, the children appear various pathological symptoms, indicating that everything is not ok with the nervous system, but there are no serious motor disorders yet.
- Initial residual .It is characterized by the formation of pathological motor stereotypes.This stage lasts until about three years of age.
- Late residual .It is accompanied by fixation of pathological changes, the development of contractures and deformations of the skeleton.
To achieve good results in the treatment of cerebral palsy, pathology must be identified at an early or initial residual stage of development.
Symptoms of cerebral palsy: what symptoms should alert?
Aside neurological disorders and cerebral palsy may indicate the following symptoms:
- delay the appearance of a child's basic motor skills( the ability to hold the head, sit up and sit down, get up on its feet, etc.).
- Severe strabismus.
- Problems with breast sucking.
- Disturbance of swallowing( constant choking).
- No hanging.
- No response to loud sounds, mother's voice in children older than 5-6 months.
- The appearance of involuntary movements, such as nodding.Episodes of long fading.
During a visit to a young child, a neurologist always checks for reflexes.In children with cerebral palsy, neonatal reflexes are preserved, which normally disappear after two months of age.
The sick child gets older, the more pronounced becomes his neurological and movement disorders, so after a year with the correct diagnosis and the establishment of forms of cerebral palsy in medical problems, as a rule, does not arise.
prognosis of cerebral palsy
cerebral palsy - this disease is not progressing. Although it seems to parents that the condition of their sick kid worsens with each passing month, pathological changes in the structures of the central nervous system( CNS) are not exacerbated.The emergence of new health problems is caused by the growth of the child, the deformation of non-functioning joints, the hypotrophy of non-functioning muscles and other factors.The long and full life of patients with cerebral palsy depends on the form of the ailment and the atmosphere in which children grow and develop. If a child is properly cared for, engaged with him, regularly conduct courses of restorative therapy, a chance to improve well-being, positive dynamics and a long life is very large.Patients with non-severe forms of cerebral palsy, with proper rehabilitation, can finish school, university, master some profession and work on it.
Disability for children with cerebral palsy is not due to the fact of the presence of the disease, but on the basis of how it affects the vital activity of a person.Medical commissions take into account whether the patient can independently move and serve himself, what is the level of his mental development and learning ability.
Diagnosis of cerebral palsy
When diagnosed, the neurologist is based on history data( whether the patient had birth trauma, intrauterine or puerperal hypoxia, etc.), general and neurological examination, and the results of instrumental studies:
- neurosonography( ultrasoundScanning of the brain);
- computed tomography.
These diagnostic methods allow physicians to study in detail the structure, functioning of the brain, and to reveal pathological changes.There are no specific instrumental studies or analyzes confirming cerebral palsy.
In addition to these diagnostic measures, patients with suspected cerebral palsy should receive advice from the oculist, LOR, a child psychiatrist( for older children).This is necessary to detect hearing, vision and mental disorders.
If the child is small, it is not always possible for a neurologist to make an accurate diagnosis for 1-2 visits.Therefore, in cerebral palsy, a very important dynamic observation of the patient.It allows you to determine the form of the disease and choose the most suitable treatment.
Principles of treatment of cerebral palsy
Treatment of children with cerebral palsy usually includes:
- exercise therapy( LFK);
- classes with speech therapist and psychologist;
- various rehabilitation measures.
In the most severe cases, doctors even resort to surgical treatment, which helps to reduce the severity of contractures and skeletal deformities.
Drug therapy in cerebral palsy is purely symptomatic, since it is impossible to influence the changes that have already occurred in the central nervous system.Patients prescribe drugs that reduce spasticity( antispasmodics and muscle relaxants), anticonvulsant and psychotropic drugs, vitamins and drugs that improve metabolic processes and blood circulation in the brain.
Good results in cerebral palsy give therapeutic exercise .For sick children, individual sets of exercises are developed on special simulators, allowing babies to expand the range of movements and learn new skills.LFK exercises are very necessary to prevent the development of contractures.With growing up, the child must continue to improve his physical development, since only hard training can teach the brain and the muscle apparatus to work correctly.
From physiotherapeutic procedures in case of cerebral palsy, preference is given to relaxing baths, muds, hydromassage.In general, training in water for patients with cerebral palsy is very useful, since in an aquatic environment they can perform those movements that are not amenable to them on land.
Development of a child with cerebral palsy
Although cerebral palsy is an incurable disease, in no case can you put an end to your child.Modern medicine and parental love can work miracles. The brain in children of the first years of life is very plastic: other neurons can take on the function of damaged nerve cells, the connections between different structures of the central nervous system can be restored.The main thing is to start working in time to stimulate these compensatory mechanisms.
Daddies and mothers of patients with infantile cerebral palsy can always turn to specialized rehabilitation centers where they will be supported psychologically, they will give answers to questions, help with advice on the rules for caring for a special child, and teach them how to deal with it at home.
Desperate parents should remember that none even the best boarding school will not replace sick children with a home. In such institutions, they contain disabled people, not children.The child with cerebral palsy should not be treated as an invalid, otherwise he will remain for life.
Prevention of cerebral palsyWe recommend to read:
Preventative measures preventing the development of cerebral palsy can be divided into four groups:
- those that are performed before pregnancy;
- antenatal( prenatal);
- perinatal( performed in childbirth);
- postnatal( conducted after delivery).
At the stage of pregnancy planning, a woman needs to be examined for infections that can cause pathology in the unborn child.If you want and the presence of evidence, you can get vaccinated against rubella - a disease that carries a greater threat to the fetus.In addition, the spouses should check their health in general, so that if any diseases are found, treat them before conception.It is also very important to give up bad habits in advance.
After the onset of pregnancy , the expectant mother must follow the recommendations of her doctor, go through all necessary research in time, avoid contact with infectious patients whenever possible, fully eat and rest, do not take medicine without prescription, beware of hazardous chemicals and radiation.
Prophylaxis of cerebral palsy in the birth of is already the task of doctors, so if they decide that it is necessary to do a cesarean section, the pregnant woman should not rest on it.The operation can prevent a lot of complications if the child is not properly located in the uterus, if he has acute hypoxia, etc.
After the birth of the baby , neonatologists should promptly detect and treat hemolytic disease and other conditions that pose a serious threat to the central nervous system.In the subsequent, the parents should take care that the newborn is not injured and is not at risk of contracting infectious diseases.
Zubkova Olga Sergeevna, medical reviewer, epidemiologist doctor