Rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy
Almost all methods of rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy, recognized by traditional medicine, have high efficiency, if treatment is started in the early period of the development of the disease ( tentatively up to the age of two).After several rehabilitation courses, the patients begin to independently perform previously inaccessible movements, restore the speech function and show other successes.This once again confirms the need for timely diagnosis of cerebral palsy.
The rehabilitation program is developed individually for each child. Rehabilitation specialists in various ways help patients to restore the harmonious work of muscles( flexors and extensors must contract in concert) and learn everything that they could not learn because of the disease: to hold their heads, sit down, stand up, walk, talk, etc.
To achieve a good result in the treatment of cerebral palsy, patients and their parents have to try various rehabilitation methods.And it's not surprising.Each of the rehabilitation systems has its own peculiarities of influence on the child's organism, so what does not fit one, fits and helps other children.Parents should remember this and do not get upset in case of failures.
Consider the most well-known and effective rehabilitation techniques used in cerebral palsy.Table of contents: Kozyavkin method Bobat-therapy Wojta method Dolphin therapy Hippotherapy The method of dynamic proprioceptive correction Montessori method
The author of this technique is the Ukrainian neurologist Kozyavkin VIUnder his leadership in Ukraine( in Truskavets), a reputable worldwide rehabilitation center for the treatment of cerebral palsy was created.
The method is based on a multimodal approach, which includes the following directions:
- biomechanical correction of the spine( performed using Kozyavkin's manual techniques);
- mobilization of joints( improvement of mobility of joints);
- reflexotherapy( influence on muscle tone with the help of electrostimulation);
- mobilizing gymnastics( allows children to master new passive and active movements);
- special massage system( necessary for relaxing spasms, improving blood circulation of tissues);
- apitherapy( treatment of bee products);
- mechanotherapy( training on special simulators);
- rhythmic gymnastics;
- classes in a suit "Spiral" - suit of correction of movements.
The main goal of Koziavkin's method is to achieve a new functional state of the patient's body. This state opens up opportunities for mastering the necessary motor skills and rapid motor-mental development of the child.
This technique, like the previous one, is named after the authors - Bobat's spouses. The main essence of Bobat therapy is stimulation of the affected areas of the brain with the help of sensory, tactile and other stimuli. These irritants cause a healthy newborn baby to learn new movements - he turns his head toward a loud sound or flash of light, reaches for something interesting, etc.Similarly, you can push the sick child to perform certain movements.
According to the Bobat-therapy method, the patient must consistently follow all the stages of physiological motor development of the child - first learn to hold his head, then turn over, sit down, etc.
Classes on the Bobat system are under the supervision of the kinesitherapist, which helps the child develop the correct motor stereotypes.It looks like this: the child is shown a bright toy, he starts to drag on and move to it, and the doctor at this time corrects his movements.In addition, with a small patient, special physical exercises are carried out-put it in a position in which muscle spasm and pathological reflexes decrease.Such exercises are carried out on a special ball in the hands of a rehabilitator.
The author of this method, Vaclav Voit, suggested using reflexes of crawling and turning for the purposes of motor rehabilitation of sick children.For each child, according to the Vojta method, an individual complex of exercises is developed with subsequent correction.
The peculiarity of Vojta-therapy is that in it the main role belongs to the parents, since it is they who will have to deal with the child, , daily and 3-4 times a day.To this end, before the rehabilitation begins, parents are taught all the necessary skills, so with training problems do not arise.
Treatment by the method of Vojta can begin with the period of newborn.However, moms and dads should seriously prepare for this psychologically, as the child will not always calmly react to what is being done to him.And this is due not so much to pain as to fear and natural protest.
This is probably the most pleasant rehabilitation method for sick children.It is based on the communication of the child with the dolphin.Such communication favorably affects the psyche, gives positive emotions, relaxation and even some kind of pacification.
What can a sick child take from dolphin therapy? First of all - this is a change in attitudes towards oneself and the world around them, a decrease in isolation. Secondly, communication with the dolphin is a powerful sensory stimulus that forces nervous structures to work actively, and this in turn contributes to the improvement of speech and motor function, the intellectual development of mentally retarded children.
Lessons are held with dolphins with the participation of a rehabilitation physician, parents and trainer, who is responsible for the animal.Be afraid of some kind of aggression and unforeseen reactions from the dolphins are not worth it.Animals are prepared specifically for medical purposes.
Hippotherapy - treatment with horses.The sick children not only introduce animals, but also teach riding, however strange it may sound.If the kid, by virtue of his physical abilities can not sit, it is put on the back of the horse.This also gives a very positive effect.
How does hippotherapy work?During riding, the child reflexively tries to occupy the most stable and comfortable position for himself.He tightly squeezes his feet, trying to keep his back exactly.At the same time, practically all the muscles of the body are included in the process, including those that are usually immobile. That is, hippotherapy in essence is very similar to exercise therapy, but there is one difference - a child trains his muscles not consciously, but reflexively.
Another therapeutic factor of hippotherapy is massage and thermal action on legs and pelvic region.The horse, moving around with the muscles of the back, kneads the muscles of the child and gives him his warmth.
Dynamic Proprioceptive Correction Method
DPC - Dynamic Proprioceptive Correction .The method consists in the motor correction, which is carried out with the help of a special device "Graviton" ."Graviton" is a system of elastic traction, which is collected individually for each patient, depending on the clinical situation.In such a device-suit the patient should be engaged in physical therapy.The complex of exercises for exercise therapy is developed taking into account the present motor disorders.
The course of treatment according to the DPC method, as a rule, lasts 20 days.This method can be used in children after 3 years.
According to Montessori method, every child should develop in natural conditions and he should not interfere.Teachers in this system do not act as mentors, but only as assistants.For classes, special materials are used, according to which the children learn on their own.
The choice of the specific course of study depends on the age of the child, or, more accurately, the sensitive period of development.For example, from 0 to 6 years, speech develops, up to 5.5 years - sensory perception, from 3 to 6 years, social skills are formed.For each of these functions there is a certain area of the brain, and it is necessary to stimulate it on time.
Montessori's method gives sick children the opportunity to expand their horizons, gain an inner motivation for learning new things, develop observation, independence and other very important skills.
In general, all the above rehabilitation techniques help the child with cerebral palsy to achieve the maximum of their physical and mental capabilities, as well as feel like a full-fledged person.
Zubkova Olga Sergeevna, medical reviewer, epidemiologist