How to treat a migraine - a review of effective drugs
Migraine is not a commonplace headache, but rather a serious illness.Migraine attacks can literally drive people crazy, forcing the patient to take any pain medication that comes with them.But they, unfortunately, for the most part do not bring the expected effect - the intensity of the headache does not decrease, the patient's condition does not normalize.The result of incorrect treatment of migraines can be nervous, psychological disorders, and how the patient feels after the attack of the disease in question is better not to mention at all - complete "weakness", strong weakness, "vacuum" in the head, in general,long.Recommended to read:
How to treat a migraine correctly?Which medications will have an effect?This will be discussed in the presented version.Table of contents: Triptans - anti-migraine drugs Rules for taking analgesics for migraine attacks How to reduce the number of migraine attacks Calling an ambulance - when appropriate
Tryptanes - antimigrenous drugs
The most popular and effective medicines that are effective forTo attacks of migraine, are considered triptans.It is noteworthy that absolutely all the drugs related to this drug group operate on the same biochemical principle, but usually only 1-2 of the entire list help a migraine patient.That's why doctors do not recommend choosing a specific medicine - although triptans are sold in pharmacies without a prescription, specialist advice is extremely necessary for individual choice.
Note: conducted clinical studies confirm that the type of anti-migraine drugs under consideration in 60% of cases have a positive effect.This is significantly higher compared with anesthetics, antispasmodics.
Preparations from the group of triptans:
- tablets - sumatriptan, sumyagren, rapimed, zomig, naramig, amigrenin, imigran;
- sprays are imitated;
- Suppositories - Trimigrene.
Note: if migraine is accompanied by attacks of nausea and especially vomiting, then taking medicines from the group of triptans is better in the form of a spray.If the patient takes the pill and immediately vomits, then you can not expect relief.
Triptans should be taken no later than 2 hours after the onset of the attack - this period is counted from the moment of the end of the aura phase.If the painful attack acquires intensity slowly, it can not be differentiated as a migraine, it is advisable for the patient to use medicines with the usual analgesic effect.And in the case of an accurate understanding that a migraine attack has begun, medications from the group of triptans should be taken concomitantly with prokinetics( for example, metoclopramide).
Triptans can cause side effects:
- persistent dizziness;
- a feeling of heaviness and a feeling of numbness in the lower limbs;
- a recurring sensation of fever in the lower limbs;
- uncontrolled attacks of tachycardia;
- development of angina pectoris;
- unmotivated increased blood pressure;
- spontaneously arisen heart rhythm disturbances;
- dry mouth;
- Occasional nausea and vomiting;
- colitis ischemic;
- increased frequency of urination;
- weakness in muscles for no apparent reason;
Do not forget that drugs from the category of triptans can cause a strong allergic reaction - rashes on the skin, itching, fever and edema Quincke( rarely).
It is strictly forbidden to use triptans when:
- pregnancy and during breastfeeding;
- ischemic heart disease;
- disorders of cerebral circulation;
- pathology of the kidney and liver in history and development at the time of a migraine attack.
Why is it not recommended to take medicines from the triptane group without first consulting a physician?First, it will be necessary to select a specific tool individually. And secondly, you need to consider with which medications you can not combine triptans:
- antifungal agents;
- antibacterial agents( antibiotics);
- antiviral agents.
Rules for taking analgesics during a migraine attack
The fact that any medication, including an analgesic effect, must be taken strictly according to instructions, is known to everyone.But specifically for patients with diagnosed migraine, you also need to know the exact time of taking medications - then the phrase "every minute on the account" fits perfectly.
So, according to scientific research, drugs from the group of analgesics can relieve a headache attack, which happened for absolutely different reasons.And even with migraines, such drugs as analgin, baralgin are able to have the desired effect!The only condition - they need to have time to take within 40-120 minutes from the onset of the attack( the more precise time depends on the intensity with which the pain syndrome develops).It is during this period of a migraine attack that the cause of the headache is solely their inflammation and enlargement.
If the nausea and vomiting, intolerance of loud sounds and an inadequate response to bright light join the pulsating headache, then it means only one thing: activation of such pain mechanisms that normal analgesics will stop will not be possible.Specifically, the pain impulses passed along the trigeminal nerve and "reached" the cortex of the brain.
Note: to take painkillers and antimigraine medicines after the deadline indicated above will not lead to relief, but to a worsening of the patient's condition.In no case can you take these medicines every hour in order to strengthen their effects and achieve the desired effect - you can only provide the patient with side effects.
Separately it is worth mentioning the combined analgesics - they contain phenobarbital and codeine.Doctors recommend that combined analgesics should be taken just in case the optimal time for conventional analgesics is missed.Due to phenobarbital and codeine, they also have a calming effect, which dulls the sensitivity of the cerebral cortex.Absolutely stop the development of migraine attacks combined analgesics can not, but reduce its intensity will be.
Note: phenobarbital and codeine in combined analgesics are contained in scant amounts and therefore no guarantee that the effect will be obtained, no.But if you take these drugs uncontrollably, then addiction will develop.Doctors categorically prohibit the use of combined analgesics for migraine attacks more than 2 times a month.
How to reduce the number of migraine attacks
Naturally, every migraine patient wants to at least reduce the number of seizures - each of them causes not only severe pain, but also discomfort in life.There are certain rules developed by doctors and scientists that will help reduce the number of migraine attacks - they just need to be respected! These include:
- Mandatory control of the appearance of migraine attacks - identifying triggers that provoke these attacks, you can safely exclude them from everyday life.Unfortunately, this is the advice of physicians that patients ignore - the usual reason they indicate when they visit a specialist: "was nervous or tired".You need to forget about this frivolity and take care of your health by identifying external and / or internal provokers of migraine attacks.
- At least 2 times a year with a diagnosed migraine, you need to take preventive courses for taking specific medications - they reduce the sensitivity of cerebral vessels.
- Doctors can prescribe the following remedies:
- antiepileptic - they act on the excitability of the brain, reduce it, which leads to rare reactions to triggers( irritants);
- antidepressants - increase the level of serotonin hormone in the blood, which reduces the number of migraine attacks and reduce their intensity;
- beta blockers - these drugs can reduce blood pressure, slow heart rate;
- calcium channel blockers - regular use of them helps to stabilize and increase the tone of the vessels of the brain;
- preparations with magnesium content - are needed to stabilize the heart and strengthen the vessels of the brain;
- preparations that help improve the cerebral circulation.
Note: none of the listed drugs can not be taken without prescribing a doctor!Antidepressants should be used in minimal therapeutic dosages, beta-blockers are allowed to be taken only to patients with normal heart rate, but slightly increased blood pressure, but calcium channel blockers will have to be taken in high doses.
Be sure to visit a doctor if more than 2 migraine attacks occur within 30 days, a headache occurs between attacks of the patient, and the dosages of analgesics and tryptanes prescribed by a specialist should be increased to obtain an effect.
Calling an ambulance - when it is appropriate
Migraine, in principle, is not a dangerous disease - this is confirmed by research fact.But in some cases, powerful attacks of the disease in question can lead to serious consequences. It is necessary to know in which cases it is appropriate to call the ambulance:
- migraine attack lasts for more than 72 hours - this condition is classified by doctors as migraineous status, which can provoke a stroke;
- aura period lasts more than 60 minutes, but the attack of pain does not develop;
- vomiting and diarrhea during the attack are repeated many times - it can lead to dehydration of the body, disruption of the digestive and / or urinary system;
- previously had no migraine attacks from the aura period, and the last time it suddenly appeared;
- serious visual impairment( bifurcation of objects, blurred features of the visible image, sudden reduction of visual acuity);
- there was a short-term loss of consciousness, disorientation in space;
- for the last week the patient experiences a second or third episode in a row;
- the nature of the course of the migraine attack has changed;
- a patient older than 55 years, previously had frequent migraine attacks, but several years have passed, and suddenly there is an identical headache.
Migraine is a disease that brings discomfort to a patient's life.How to treat migraines, when you need to start taking specific medications, how you can reduce the number of seizures - this is all there is in the material presented.But this information is only consultative in nature, all the examinations and appointments should be done by the doctor only with direct contact with the patient.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category