Bruxism: causes, symptoms and treatment in adults and children
Bruxism is grinding teeth, the syndrome is extremely unpleasant for the patient and is quite problematic for the doctor.There is a theory that bruxism is inherent in people with an unbalanced nervous system, but it is known that this syndrome is diagnosed in 1-3% of the people of the world's population.Most often doctors face bruxism, which is actively manifested at night, but there are cases of the day type of the condition in question.Modern medicine knows very well what causes can lead to the appearance of a grinding of teeth, and can explain the mechanism of bruxism in general: an involuntary spasm of masticatory muscles, jaws close and uncontrolled movement begins in them laterally or anteroposteriorly.During this process, the teeth are linked together by their surfaces( chewing), they move with sufficient friction, that's why a rattle is heard.
During an attack of bruxism in humans, the following can be noted:
- slowing heart rate;
- impairment of breathing during nighttime dreams, until it stops( apnea);
- lowering of blood pressure.
Usually, gnashing( bruxism attack) does not last long - from several seconds to several minutes.Table of contents:
Causes of bruxism in adults
There are clearly identified causes of tooth grinding in adults:
Inflammatory process in the mandibular joint
This pathological process in any case results in a violation of the functionality of the joints, and this phenomenon can be characterized by a click inTime to open the mouth - for example, when yawning or biting off large pieces of food / food.Inflammation of the mandibular joint, which proceeds in a chronic form, provokes an increase in nervous impulse, which in turn stimulates a sudden spasm of the masticatory muscles.The muscles contract, the lower jaw is set in motion and dental scraping is heard.
In general, in this case there is a "vicious" circle: spasm of masticatory muscles is provoked by a chronic inflammatory process, but this very spasm also supports inflammation.
Nervous system disorders
Quite often for this reason, people get daytime bruxism, but also during the night's sleep because of the "non-disconnection" of the nervous system and the impossibility of full relaxation, the person will also grind his teeth. It is worth knowing some of the features of the condition in question, which was triggered by nervous system disorders:
- Bruxism at night always coincides with the phase of fast sleep, when involuntary muscle twitching and active movements of the eyeballs occur.
- Nervous disorders lead to the development of the condition in question, accompanied by snoring and talking in a dream.
- Patients suffering from bruxism due to nervous disorders, in the daytime, in moments of excitement or excessive concentration, have a habit of gnawing various objects( pens, pencils, matches) and their own nails.
The presence of the neurotoxins
in the body There are a number of "household" neurotoxins that poison the body and have a destructive effect on the human nervous system.These include alcohol, nitro colors and nicotine: if their effects on a person continue for some time, then the appearance of bruxism at night is considered an expected phenomenon.
Problems in the field of dentistry
It is a question of that the considered pathological phenomenon can arise not from caries or stomatitis, but from pathologies and / or anomalies of dentition and jaws. For example, bruxism may accompany:
- poorly manufactured / unsuitable prosthesis in size;
- severe eruption of eighth teeth( difficult);
- incorrect bite;
- improperly installed implants and a progressive inflammatory process in the surrounding soft tissues.
Worms and gnashing of teeth: truth and speculation
Many believe that gnashing his teeth during sleep is a sign of the presence of worms in the body.Especially often this syndrome is mentioned in the case of helminthic invasion in childhood.By the way, our ancestors treated bruxism with garlic and pumpkin seeds, which is explained by a false misconception about the connection between gnashing of teeth and worms.
Official medicine has not found a direct connection between the phenomenon under consideration and helminthic invasions. Seriously, we can only consider three points that bind helminthic invasion and bruxism:
- Infection with any kinds of worms leads to a disturbance of the psycho-emotional background, the person becomes irritable, restless - such nervous disorders are one of the reasons for the development of bruxism.
- When infected with worms( more this refers to intestinal helminthiasis), the body is deficient in vitamin B12.This, in turn, significantly worsens the work of the neuromuscular system, which is an unconditional factor leading to violations of the functionality of the chewing musculature.
- The lack of vitamin B12, the development of anemia in helminthic invasion worsens the process of transporting oxygen to the brain, and this leads to a change in the depth of sleep.Against the background of such violations, involuntary muscular contractions may occur as partial seizures.
Causes of Scripping with Teeth in a Dream in a Child
Pediatric patients seek help from a pediatrician for a night gnashing of teeth in 30% of cases( mean). The most common causes of childish bruxism are:
- increased fatigue of the child;
- abnormalities in the structure of the facial skeleton and jaws;
- pathological bite;
Often, children begin to grate their teeth in a dream against the background of a prolonged course of an infectious disease, and some parents note the appearance of the syndrome in question when the baby is weaned from the nipple.Medicine does not disregard the hereditary factor - in 80% of cases, nocturnal bruxism was present in the parents( or one of them) of the child.
The relationship between tooth creaking and epilepsy
More recently, physicians have conducted studies that should have identified or excluded the link between bruxism and epilepsy.The results were published in the journal "The Medical Gazette of the North Caucasus" for 2011( No. 2). Briefly, several aspects can be singled out:
- revealed a direct relationship between gnashing of teeth and speaking / walking in sleep;
- bruxism also has a connection with consciousness loss in the past, but never accompanies them;
- there was no direct link between bruxism and epileptic seizures;
- most often gnashing of teeth is present in children with hyperactivity - they used to sit down, begin to stand, walk and talk.
Principles of treatment of bruxism
It is rather difficult to get rid of the syndrome under consideration, you will first need to find out the true cause of the grinding of teeth and only after that choose effective methods of treatment. In medicine, the following methods of treating bruxism are used:
- hardware correction - wearing specially made cap for three months;
- visits the trainings of the therapist for stress relief and emotional relief;
- treatment of orthodontic and / or orthopedic nature;
- drug therapy;
- physiotherapy - laser exposure and warming compresses;
- dental treatment;
- Stress prevention and sedation.
Some doctors use as a treatment for Botox injections, which are advisable in case of neglected bruxism.Botox in this case is a protective substance that prevents spontaneous contractions of the jaw muscles.
It is impossible to specify exactly the specialty of the doctor to be consulted about the gnashing of teeth, since everything depends on what exactly triggered the appearance of the syndrome in question.Patients are advised to first turn to the dentist, and already he, after the examination, will refer the patient to the right specialists - neuropathologist, orthodontist, psychologist or neurologist.
Please note: the sooner there has been a request for qualified medical assistance regarding the gnashing of teeth, the more chances of success in treatment.Many people simply ignore bruxism, and this can result in abrasion of tooth enamel, rapid spread of caries and inflammatory processes in the soft tissues of the oral cavity, which results in the loss of teeth.
What are Brux's Bags
During a night's sleep a person simply can not control the body, so stopping / stopping gnashing his teeth will not work.This syndrome leads to the destruction of the teeth, so doctors often appoint special patients from Bruxism to their patients with the syndrome under consideration.Such a device facilitates the condition, protects the teeth from abrasion and relieves the load on the joints of the jaw.
Cap of bruxism is a device made of silicone.It performs several important functions:
- serves to prevent loosening and dislodging of teeth;
- protects teeth from destruction;
- protects the braces( if any) from breakage;
- reduces the strain on the facial muscles and jaw joints.
Please note: should never be bought from bruxism in pharmacies, as they can even do harm.Such an adaptation is made only on individual orders!
There are several types of bruxism hoods:
- single and double-jawed - the latter species is used in particularly complex / neglected cases of bruxism;
- fluorescent - used to treat daytime gnashing of teeth, showing their constant wearing;
- resonating - appointed by a doctor only with intense bruxism, used to get rid of muscle spasms and displacement of the joint head;
- night - the most popular type of device, put on only before night sleep, protect the teeth from abrasion.
Caps are considered the most popular method of treating gnashing of teeth, but these adaptations need to be able to take care of. Care instructions for dripping:
- every morning they must be rinsed inside and outside clean, running water;
- the outer part of the kapa must be cleaned with a toothbrush;
- store the device in a glass with water or in a special case;
- periodically the cap is taken to the treating dentist for inspection or replacement if necessary.
Procedures for treatment of bruxism
Treatment of the syndrome under consideration must necessarily be complex, because only in this way it will be possible to obtain the expected result. Specialists recommend the following procedures within the framework of therapy:
- self-help psychotherapy - self-massage, relaxing baths, walking on fresh air;
- relaxation of the chewing muscles during the day - the patient must learn to close the jaws only during chewing;
- special fatigue of the chewing muscles before night sleep - chewing gum is used, which should be chewed actively on each side of the jaw for 1-3 minutes until the fatigue in the jaw is felt;
- warm compresses, which are imposed on the cheekbones - relieve tension and reduce pain.
In especially severe cases, the attending physician may prescribe a course of drug therapy.Drugs will be selected based on the reasons that led to the emergence of bruxism. For example, the following can be prescribed:
- agents with a content in the composition of calcium and magnesium;
- vitamins B12 and B6;
- ascorbic acid;
- Taurine, Phenylalanine.
Prevention of bruxism in adults and children
To avoid the development of the syndrome under consideration, doctors recommend the following:
- It is advisable to take a relaxing bath before going to bed( for example, with decoction of chamomile and mint, honey and milk).
- Before the night rest, do not watch too emotional movies, listen to aggressive music and read too impressive books.
- In the evening, you should exclude the use of fatty and in large quantities of food, and immediately before going to bed it is desirable to tire muscles and joints with chewing movements, for which you can use an apple, chewing gum, carrots.
- During the day we drink tea with chamomile, mint, melissa.
- It is highly desirable in the evening to take walks in the fresh air - this will help to stabilize the nervous system and psycho-emotional background.
Bruxism is a rather unpleasant syndrome that worries people around and brings a lot of trouble to the patient himself.Getting rid of it is considered a complex and lengthy process, so as soon as it became known about the night or daytime gnashing of teeth, it is necessary to seek qualified medical help.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category