Prevention of stroke
If brain cells have experienced a sudden impairment of blood supply, they will die.If there is a symptomatology of a neurological or cerebral character against this background and is kept unchanged for a day or more, it leads to the death of a person.This is what a stroke looks like-a pathological condition that, even with timely medical care, can have serious consequences( paralysis of the body, complete or partial, paresis, vestibular disorders, pronounced speech disorders).
Stroke is a disease that is considered quite common, and its age is getting younger every year.Recovery after a stroke of all body functions in full in almost every case becomes a problem, and most often patients become disabled.It is these facts that make the prevention of strokes an important aspect in the work of medical personnel.Table of Contents: Risk Factors Mainstreaming Prevention Activities in the Primary Stroke Prevention
The main objective of preventive measures is to monitor and correct the risk factors for the development of the pathology in question.Doctors divide these factors into two large groups - predisposing and metabolic.
- predisposition is hereditary;
- human age - according to statistics, the risk of developing acute circulatory disturbances in cells and brain tissues in people aged 50 years increases every year;
- sexual characteristics - in men aged 40 years and older, strokes occur much more often than in women of the same age group.The following risk factors are amenable to correction:
- Alcohol and smoking consumption;
If we talk about metabolic risk factors, it means the presence of human diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, coagulopathy and metabolic syndrome.
"Foundation" prevention of strokes of various types( hemorrhagic and ischemic) are corrective measures aimed at eliminating metabolic factors through the use of medicines and the exclusion of bad habits.
The main areas of prevention
Doctors believe that the main causes of acute blood supply to brain cells are atherosclerotic changes in the vessels and persistently high blood pressure( if it comes to ischemic stroke) and constantly high blood pressure in combination with vascularPathologies( for hemorrhagic strokes). It was for this reason that the main directions of stroke prevention were identified:
- timely diagnosis and full treatment under the supervision of a hypertensive doctor in the initial stage of development;
- timely started and correctly conducted treatment of heart defects, myocardial infarction, endocarditis or cardiac arrhythmias;
- prevention of repeated violations of blood supply to the brain, in some cases it is considered appropriate to conduct surgical interventions;
- when diagnosing problems in the process of lipid metabolism in patients who have a history of atherosclerosis or coronary heart disease - a full-fledged drug therapy.
Actions in the framework of primary prevention of strokes
This term implies the implementation of a set of measures that will be aimed at preventing the development of acute disorders of cerebral circulation.Such measures include refusal( or restriction if the dependence is too high) of smoking, treatment of vascular and heart diseases, constant correction of the state of health in diabetes mellitus, rationalization of nutrition, control of body weight.
Drugs in the prevention of stroke of the ischemic type
This type of the pathological condition is diagnosed by doctors much more often.Usually, cerebral infarction( this is how the term ischemic stroke can be explained) happens with cerebral artery atherosclerosis, which occurs against a background of high blood pressure, cardiac arrhythmias and heart valve problems.
As part of measures to prevent the development of ischemic-type strokes, doctors treat all of these diseases with the use of medications. In particular, it will be expedient to conduct:
- course of therapy, after which the blood pressure will be normalized and stabilized;
- course of treatment with the use of statins, which have the ability to normalize lipid metabolism;
- therapy aimed at correcting the state of health in infectious, somatic diseases, diabetes, coagulopathies and chlamydia;
- mixed treatment with herbal preparations and funds from the category "traditional medicine" with the goal of normalization and stabilization of metabolic processes and a steady decrease in blood pressure.
High blood pressure is a very important risk factor for the development of hemorrhagic and / or ischemic strokes, which, however, is quite amenable to correction.The most frequent complication of hypertension is the crisis( hypertensive) - a condition accompanied by the death of cells of the vascular walls, which provokes the formation of aneurysms and hemorrhage in the brain.
The main prevention of this pathology is the control of blood pressure, if necessary - the appointment of specific drugs that can stabilize this indicator.
Note: any antihypertensive drugs( those that are able to normalize blood pressure indicators) are taken for a long period.During the therapy, the doctor will have to adjust the medication intake and dosage, therefore, the patient should be monitored regularly.
Primary prevention of stroke of ischemic type in women
Cardiologists and physicians of other specialties note that ischemic-type strokes are often diagnosed in women who have anamnesis:
- Preventing pregnancy with oral contraceptives for a long period;
- during pregnancy pathological character;
- disorders of dyshormonal character;
- frequently recurring migraine attacks characterized by duration;
- is a habit of smoking.
For this reason, preventive measures aimed at preventing the development of ischemic stroke in women mean not only quitting smoking, controlling blood pressure and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. It is very important to understand that a woman should take oral contraceptives only as prescribed by a gynecologist and after consulting with an endocrinologist.In addition, you need to timely take courses of treatment for endometriosis, mastopathy and polycystic ovary - a disease that can trigger an imbalance of hormones in the body .
Secondary prevention of strokes
This term implies the implementation of comprehensive preventive measures, which can be medicamentous and non-medicamentous. The second group of preventive measures include:
- complete withdrawal from smoking, alcohol and drug dependence;
- compliance with diet and diet, which must comply with the rules of the hypo cholesterol diet;
- increase in physical activity, which must be supervised by medical personnel - exercise therapy, massage, walking outdoors;
- weight normalization.
Repeated strokes are not uncommon, therefore only non-medicamental means of prevention are indispensable. Within the framework of medical measures for the prevention of a second attack, cerebral circulation disorders are prescribed:
- drugs with antithrombotic action - anticoagulants of indirect effects and antiaggregants;
- drugs that have antihypertensive effects( reduce blood pressure);
- carotid endarterectomy is a surgical procedure that is rarely performed.
Note: official medicine does not exclude the possibility of using folk remedies in conducting secondary prevention of strokes.But it is possible to apply such methods of supporting the body only after consulting with the attending physician and obtaining a permit.
Features of therapy with antithrombotic drugs
This group of medicines is an important link in the prevention of secondary type of strokes.Most often, doctors use Clopidogrel, Aspirin, Dipyridamol and Tiklopidine for this purpose.Such therapy is characterized by a long and continuous course, which can result in long-term use of antithrombotic drugs.
Doctors warn that the independent conduct of treatment activities in the framework of secondary prevention of stroke is unacceptable .Moreover, many people take Aspirin and other antithrombotic medications as a primary prevention - this is absolutely absolutely forbidden to do without the supervision of physicians.This warning is associated with the fact that the above medicines have a lot of side effects and contraindications.For example, they are prohibited for use in pathological lesions of the erosive nature of the stomach / duodenum, violations of liver function, aspirin asthma.
If the patient has a contraindication to the use of antithrombotic drugs, the doctor can pick up more "soft" remedies.
Stroke prophylaxis is an activity that should be performed by all people aged 40 years and older, and if they are at risk for developing cerebral circulation disorders, then at an earlier age. It is not recommended to engage in prophylaxis on your own - you should, at a minimum, undergo a survey and get a medical opinion about:
- advisability of taking antithrombotic medications;
- a competent diet for weight loss and lowering blood cholesterol levels, if any problems are identified;
- treatment of all diagnosed diseases;
- expediency of use as a preventive maintenance of strokes of funds from the category "traditional medicine".
But doctors will not help if a person does not abandon bad habits, does not change his way of life, and does not follow all the recommendations of specialists.Stroke does not choose the age and sex of a person, more and more often acute disorders of blood supply to the brain are diagnosed in young people, therefore primary prevention of this pathology is the most important aspect in the life of each person.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category