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Migraine - Causes, Symptoms and Basics of Treatment


Migraine is perhaps the most ancient disease that is known to mankind.The first mention of this disease was found in the writings of shuvers who lived 3000 years ago, and then the migraine became a "disease of aristocrats". .. For many years, doctors and scientists not only classified and differentiated the disease, but also found out how and how to helpTo their patients.

General information about migraine

This disease is not dangerous to human health or life, some scientists generally conclude that migrainesHelps people to keep their minds and memories longer. .. Agree, doubtful positive qualities of the disease, if such can occur at all. What is known about migraines to doctors and scientists:

  1. Migraine attacks always go through 4 stages of development:
  • prolong - patient worried about a sense of anxiety, he clearly feels the onset of an attack;
  • aura - tactile, visual and auditory disorders begin before the attack;
  • Mangrenous pain - always very strong, paroxysmal, pulsating and with localization in a certain part of the head;
  • postdromal period - the pain recedes, the person feels a general weakness, weakness.
  1. In some patients, migraine develops in only 3 stages - there is no aura, but this does not mean that it is necessary immediately to exclude the disease in question.
  2. There is a severe course of migraine - in addition to the usual signs, patients notice nausea, vomiting, dizziness, impaired vision in the form of darkening in the eyes, short-term paralysis of the upper or lower extremities.
  3. Young children may complain of recurring bouts of abdominal pain and unmotivated vomiting - these symptoms of unexplained etiology in some cases indicate migraine development at an early age.
  4. More often the disease is diagnosed in women, and, the first attacks can develop as early as 13 years.Virtually every woman has migraines receding at the onset of menopause.
  5. It is impossible to get rid of migraines "once and for all", but doctors will be able to teach patients with such a diagnosis to lead a normal lifestyle.Well, almost usual. ..
  6. Normally, migraine attacks should be no more than 2 times a month, and the duration of each attack should not exceed 2 hours.

Migraine pathophysiology

What should I do to control migraines, reduce the number and quality of seizures?First, it is necessary to understand the variety of provoking factors( triggers) and learn how to avoid them.Secondly, it will be necessary to study a variety of pain medication and migraine remedies to quickly relieve pain during an attack.Thirdly, to carry out a number of activities that will help reduce the number of attacks.

Migraine and triggers

Migraine can not be classified as an ordinary headache, albeit intense - this disease is defined by doctors as an increased sensitivity of the brain to some annoying factors.And these very triggers must necessarily be identified - if they are excluded from normal life, it will be possible to reduce the number of migraine attacks to the maximum possible.

Migraine triggers:

  1. Power Mode.If you used to make big breaks between meals, you prefer to starve for a while, and then calmly eat, then wait for migraine attacks.The fact is that the biggest "glutton" in the body is the brain, which requires a certain level of glucose in the blood.In the absence of food, this indicator decreases, and the brain will necessarily react to this attitude.It's easy to remove the trigger - just snack every 3-4 hours, even if the appetite is completely absent.
  2. Alcohol.This is the most "bright" trigger, especially dangerous for migraine sufferers champagne and red wine.In general, any alcoholic drink contributes to the expansion of cerebral vessels and can provoke pain syndrome even in those who are not familiar with migraine attacks.
  3. Liquid.Doctors say that a healthy person needs to consume at least one and a half liters of clean water per day - this will allow normalizing metabolic processes, and will ensure the rapid removal of toxins and toxins from the body.If a person, subject to migraine attacks, is engaged in active sports, training, then the amount of clean water used should increase.Remember - you need to use pure water, not tea / coffee / juice!
  4. Food products.There are a number of products that most often act as triggers for migraines:
  • primarily - beer, meat smoked foods and cheese with mold, which contain a large amount of tyramine;
  • following on danger triggers - bananas, chocolate and citrus;
  • ambiguous triggers - coffee and strong black tea, which are still disputed by scientists and doctors.

Please note: has recently reported that migraine attacks can trigger glutamate sodium, an additive to foods and dishes that is used almost universally.But these statements of official recognition by science have not been received.

  1. Allergy.It is a question of hypersensitivity or individual intolerance to external stimuli, when the presence of an allergen provokes a migraine attack.By the way, studies were conducted with a group of allergic people suffering from migraine - they were protected for several months from the usual external stimuli, which led to a significant reduction in the number of seizures, and the intensity of migraine pain decreased.
  2. Sleep mode.Necessarily it is necessary to observe the amount of night sleep recommended by doctors - within 7-8 hours.If a person with a diagnosed migraine is forced to give a night's sleep to 5-6 hours( for example, when changing the work schedule), migraine attacks will be repeated more often and the pain syndrome will be more intense.But do not rush to the other extreme, when on weekends a person tries to sleep off during the whole working week and spends 10-12 hours in bed - the brain can react with a powerful attack on such laziness.
  3. Active way of life.Good intentions to go in for sports, grow your own harvest in a country virgin land, or make a tour of all the shops / shopping centers in the city in a day can turn into the strongest attack of migraine.It's simple - if your life can be called hypodynamic, you can not immediately dive into the whirlpool of movements and activity - start to load your body gradually.But if sports and general active rest are an integral part of life, then it is not recommended to reduce the tempo and relax.
  4. 310435 Medicinal preparations.A migraine attack can provoke certain medications - for example, Nitroglycerin and Curantine have a vasodilating action that will surely cause another attack of the disease in question.Be extremely careful when choosing medicines, read the instructions for use.
  5. Environment.To provoke another attack of migraine pain may be too loud sounds, too bright light and too pronounced flavors.To reduce the impact of these triggers, it is necessary to reduce the intensity of the factors listed - for example, to avoid noisy places, ask relatives( perhaps colleagues) not to use perfume so actively, indoors lighting and so on.
  6. Hormones.This trigger gives the answer to the question "Why are migraine headaches more often affected by the female half of humanity?" - it is for ladies that in all life there is a constant fluctuation of the hormonal background - the onset of menstruation, menstrual irregularities, pregnancy, childbirth, abortions and so on.It is interesting that women notice the appearance of migraine attacks before the onset of menstruation.

In addition to these triggers, it is worth highlighting a sharp change in the weather - a migraine attack with a high probability will occur in meteozavisimyh people.And on the number and quality of attacks of the disease in question can affect the violation in the psychoemotional background - for example, frequent stress, neurosis, depression.

Drugs for migraine

Medications for migraine

The most common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - they do not just relieve the headache, but stop the inflammatory process in the vessels of the brain.We can say that such drugs not only relieve the symptoms of the disease in question, but also have a healing process.However, it is worth noting that some of the medicines in this group include ingredients that provide a sedative - a specialist should still make the choice of specific agents for a diagnosed migraine. But one can distinguish several most commonly used:

  • Aspirin;
  • Ibuprofen;
  • Paracetamol;
  • Naproxen;
  • Baralgin, analgin;
  • Voltaren / diclofenac;
  • Ketanov;
  • Xsefokam.

The listed drugs with analgesic effect are single-component.The most effective were ketones and ksefoks - these painkillers can remove even acute toothache, reduce the intensity of hepatic colic, so when diagnosed migraine, they are most often prescribed not only as tablets, but also as injections.

There are certain medications with analgesic effect, used to relieve migraine pain, which are related to multicomponent:

  • Pentalgin;
  • Citramon;
  • Migrenol;
  • Tempalgin;
  • Antipal;
  • Spazmalgon;
  • Caffeine.

Note: if a person has decided to endure a migraine attack or made a mistake in choosing an anesthetic drug, then most likely it will end with such intense pain when the patient literally "climbs on the wall."Of course, this should not be allowed, but if this fact really exists, then quickly, urgently you can get rid of the strongest pain only by injections:

  1. Baralgin - 1 ampoule contains 2500 mg of analgin, which is equivalent to 5 tablets.If the headache with another bout is no longer tolerable, vomiting has occurred, it is the injection of baralgina that will be the optimal solution to the problem.
  2. Ketorol - in 1 ampoule contains 30 mg of ketorolac, it has a more pronounced effect than baralgin.The main problem - this tool is expensive and is never available to the ambulance crew.Therefore, experts recommend themselves to purchase ketorol and syringes, in order to be able to quickly help.

In pharmacies, there are specific antimigrenous drugs combined into one group - triptans. These include:

  • Sumamigren;
  • Naramig;
  • Imigran;
  • Zomig;
  • Amigrenin;
  • Relpax.

It's worth knowing that triptans have a potent vasoconstrictor effect, so they have many contraindications. For example, it is strictly forbidden to use any medications from the group of triptans with previously diagnosed:

  • unstable blood pressure( for example, if it increases uncontrollably);
  • ischemic heart disease;
  • myocardial infarction in the anamnesis;
  • stroke in history;
  • pregnancy and the period of breastfeeding;
  • child under 18 years of age;
  • varicose veins;
  • Thrombophlebitis.

Note: triptans can not be consumed during an aura - this will only prolong the aura stage, and migraine pain will be more painful and prolonged.It is necessary to get consultation from the attending physician, especially since there is always a danger of overdose.

Initiation of an attack - what to do

The beginning of an attack - what to do

Usually, a migraine attack is felt beforehand, so the doctors have developed a number of actions that need to be performed at this time. Basically, it is recommended to use the following recommendations to each patient:

  1. If you are out of the house, then immediately go there - get out of work, leave the lecture hall and so on.
  2. Take a warm shower( not hot, not cold!).You can spend an aromatherapy session using lavender oil, bergamot and patchouli - choose the one that usually helps.
  3. Drink a cup of sweet tea or loose coffee with milk, eat something light, if you have not taken food for a long time, drink a pill of aspirin, motilium, and if there is a feeling of nausea, then ceruleca.
  4. Go to your room, close( no one should bother you), push the curtains, put out the light and go to bed - you need to try to sleep.
  5. If after 40-50 minutes the attack did not pass, then you can put a cold compress on your forehead, and put your feet in a bowl with hot water.Make yourself a massage or ask about this procedure from someone close.
  6. If the pain does not decrease and after 2 hours, it is time to take an analgesic or any drug from the group of triptans.
  7. If, after taking the last medicines, the attack does not decrease the intensity, vomiting begins, then you either need to call an ambulance team, or inject an injection of baralgin or ketorol.

Migraine can not be cured completely, but having become familiar with the peculiarities of this disease, it is quite realistic to take it under your control.Only in this case migraine attacks will not be the "end of the world", but will either occur extremely rarely, or proceed in a "facilitated" form.

Yana Tsygankova, medical reviewer, therapeutist of the highest qualification category.



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