Logoneurosis( stammering): causes, types, treatment
Logoneurosis, or stuttering - speech disturbance, characterized by repetition of words, syllables or individual sounds, there may be stops interrupting speech.Stammering is more common in children.According to statistics, this disease affects about ten percent of children of the total.Among boys, the problem is detected three times more often than in girls.The calmer the surrounding environment, the less likely the occurrence of logoneurosis in children.For example, in rural areas, the ailment is marked much less often than in urban areas.In the environment of pupils of orphanages and boarding schools, the chance of developing this deviation is much higher than that of children growing up in families. With age, stuttering usually becomes less noticeable, and often disappears completely.A hereditary predisposition to the logoneurosis is noted.Contents: Mechanism of stuttering( logoneurosis) Causes of stuttering Classification of logoneurosis - types of stuttering
Mechanism of stuttering( logoneurosis)
The mechanism of stuttering, like its causes, has been studied rather poorly and medical science to the endCan explain these processes.The most common theory is the overexcitation of Broca's center in the brain. Then overexcitation extends to the areas responsible for motor activity, causing convulsions of the muscles of the speech apparatus( soft palate, lips, tongue and others).Then Broca's center calms down and normal speech is restored.The ailment is most noticeable at the beginning of the phrase, in consonant letters.
According to American scientists, people suffering from the disease under consideration have an increased level of dopamine( a hormone responsible for the brain), and when it decreases, the state of speech stabilizes .Currently, the active development of a drug that reduces the level of dopamine.
Causes of stutter development
Stammering is most common in preschool children.A great role is played by the fact that the final formation of the cerebral hemispheres is completed by about five years - the child's excitation reactions are more pronounced than the braking processes of .These very reactions easily transform into motor activity, including the muscles of the speech apparatus.Articulatory muscles( tongue, lips, soft palate, larynx) are not developed enough and do not work very clearly.Children, often hearing different sounds and words and not understanding their meanings, can simply mix them into a heap.When a child learns to talk, his central nervous system experiences enormous loads, which can lead to malfunctions in her work, leading to stuttering.
In the appearance of the logoneurosis an imitation factor can play an important role.If a person with a stutter is present in the family or in the immediate surroundings of the child, the children can adopt this manner of speaking .In very early development of speech, when a small person gets a large vocabulary, and the voice apparatus is not fully formed, he may simply not be able to cope with a huge number of sounds - the child tries to give out information almost as a continuous stream, which is the norm.
Here are a few other factors that can trigger the appearance of logoneurosis( stammering):
- When an unhealthy psychological climate and a child receives insufficient attention in the family, he may stutter deliberately to attract this very attention.
- If education is too strict and for the slightest offense, censure or punishment follows, children become unnecessarily shy and clamped, which contributes to the appearance of ailment.
- When parents try to grow a little polyglot from their child, and at a very early age start learning languages, the brain that has not gained strength can not coordinate information, because even the main mother tongue the child has not fully mastered.This is especially noticeable in bilingual families.
- Sometimes, in order to amaze relatives and friends, parents teach long and complex verses with children to show off their offspring at a family celebration.But not only that the brain is not ready for such experiments, so also the speech apparatus is not able to endure such loads.
- If a child is born a left-handed person and his violent methods are retrained to his right hand, this process causes quite a lot of stress, which increases the risk of logoneurosis.
Boys are much more likely to stutter than girls.Simply because of the physiological characteristics of all the motor functions in girls are finally formed much earlier - this feature also concerns the development of the articulatory apparatus.
Children at risk of intrauterine hypoxia, birth traumas of the head, infectious diseases affecting the central nervous system, various craniocerebral injuries and other pathologies affecting the functioning of the nervous system are at risk. Postponed mental trauma, stressful situations also increase the chances of stuttering.Moreover, the reasons that caused psychological frustration and the duration of their impact, absolutely do not play any role: a speech defect can cause both a short fright and a long state of excitement or fear.
Note: is not proven to be a hereditary predisposition by modern science, although such assumptions are very often expressed.
In adults, stuttering is much less common than in children and, as a rule, comes from childhood.The reasons for the appearance of logoneurosis in adults, by and large, differ little from childhood causes, so treating them separately does not make much sense.
Classification of logoneurosis - types of stuttering
Types of stuttering are classified by current, clinic, types of seizures.
Classification by the flow of the problem
Constant - after the occurrence it is constantly under any circumstances, in all speech forms.
Relapsing - appears and disappears by itself, often without any connection with any factors.Periods of normal speech can last very long.
Wavey - a condition when the ailment does not go away completely, or it subside, it increases.
Classification by seizure type
By type of seizure, there are:
- is a tonic form in which the convulsive contraction of the muscles of the speech device is of great strength and duration.For the time of the spasm, speech is delayed;
- clonic form of logoneurosis - characterized by alternating, frequent, short cramps, during which individual sounds and syllables are repeated;
- Mixed form is a condition where both of the above-described types of stuttering manifest simultaneously.
Classification of stuttering in clinical forms
In medicine, there are two forms of logoneurosis in clinical manifestations - neurotic and neurotic-like.
Neurotic form is characterized by what appears in people without pre-existing intrauterine hypoxia or ancestral injuries in an anamnesis. An impetus to the development of such a clinical form of logoneurosis may be a psychological trauma or an early introduction to communication of a second language .That is, the neurotic form of the condition in question is exclusively functional, and the brain structures are not affected.That is why the neurotic form of stuttering is easier to treat.
Symptoms of a neurotic logoneurosis
Most often, the logoneurosis of this clinical form occurs in children aged 2-6 years and is of a sudden character.At first the child does not speak at all, but on his face he clearly traces the expression of fear.After a while, the kid again starts using speech, but immediately begins to stutter.
Note: , when such stammering occurs, the child becomes restless, his appetite is gone, frequent mood changes occur, sleep is disturbed.
If you get any of the next stress, stammering in a child can increase, but often there are long periods when the baby talks almost without a hitch.Neurotic logoneurosis has a wavy form of flow, it can have different predictions - if the stress / psychological trauma were in the singular, then the stuttering gradually disappears, with constant emotional shocks the logoneurosis turns into a chronic form.
Note: if the neurotic form of stuttering is chronic in nature, then, being already an adult, a person will feel socially inferior, he always has a low mood, he is afraid to talk with strangers.
Often, when diagnosing stuttering, doctors reveal that the mother during pregnancy has had severe toxicosis, or has had a trauma to the newborn in childbirth - this is the reason for the development of neurosis-like stuttering. In this case we are talking about an organic lesion of the baby's brain, so the flaw is corrected very poorly and most often the person stutters for life.
Symptoms of neurosis faltering
The first clear stuttering appears in children aged 3-4 years - this is the period when the baby begins to talk with whole sentences, complicated phrases .The first six months proceed wavy - the child then begins to stutter a lot, then talks at all without any problems.But gradually the period of normal speech disappears, and the baby begins to stutter even when uttering the simplest words.Over time, the child begins to add to his speech inappropriate sounds( e, u), the words he pronounces either during inspiration, or at the end of a full exhalation.
If neurosis-indigestion is present in adults, they actively gesture while talking, their head may be constantly twitching, monotonous swings of the trunk are observed.
General principles of treatment of logoneurosis
As the problem of stuttering is complex, parents should visit a few specialists for a complete examination of the baby when stuttering occurs. It is mandatory to show the child and get advice from a neuropathologist and psychiatrist, psychotherapist and speech therapist.
To date, there are a number of specially developed techniques that help get rid of stuttering and normalize a person's speech.Moreover, such methods should be applied in accordance with the age of the patient - there are training programs for preschoolers, there are - for adolescents and adults.
Note: , despite the fact that there are a lot of methods in the Internet and printed publications, it is not advisable to conduct classes with a stuttering child.First, you will need to examine the baby, and find out the true cause of stuttering.Secondly, only the specialist will determine which program should be applied for each child or adult.Thirdly, the classes should be conducted regularly, with the gradual complication of assignments, during which the patient's successes are evaluated.
Of course, parents should do their utmost to correct the speech of the child. Doctors give several recommendations in this regard:
- Organization of the regime of the day.The child must necessarily sleep at least 8 hours a night, and if necessary he will need to organize a day's sleep.
- Restricting views of cartoons and lessons at the computer.Parents should limit the child's time as much as possible in front of gadgets and television.This reduces the overstrain of the central sections of speech.
- Organization of correct communication.Talk with your child you need absolutely calmly, slowly and correctly pronouncing every word.If a child is hard to pronounce a phrase, you need to do it together with him aloud and several times in a row.
- Observe the guarded speech mode.Books only need to be read by the very familiar.You can not ask the baby to retell the tale or learn a verse - this can be done later, when the problem of the logoneurosis will be solved.For games you need to choose quiet classes - working with a designer, modeling, drawing, and this recommendation is connected with the fact that the child never stumbles alone with himself - let him say his actions during the lessons.
As for the treatment of adults, the process here will be complex and time-consuming.An adult should strictly observe all the doctor's appointments, if necessary - do not talk for several days, perform all the exercises.
Stammering( logoneurosis) is a problem that can interfere with a full-fledged life, so it must be started to be solved in childhood.
Tsygankova Yana Aleksandrovna, medical reviewer, therapist of the highest qualification category