Marasmus is a pathology that occurs when there is atrophy of the cerebral cortex, which is a significant part of the brain. Marasmus is the common name of the final stage, which is spread under the name of dementia. Such a disease can not proceed unnoticed, it always leads to consequences. Individuals with marasmus cause a lot of trouble. This pathology is very multifactorial and multisymptomatic, but the main thing in it is a cognitive decline. Personality of the person in marasmus is strongly modified and care of it is complicated. It is important to support relatives of people with marasmus, since such withdrawal requires massive physical and emotional efforts.
Marasmus is what?
The term marasmus is of Greek origin, meaning exhaustion, withering, fading. Marasmus has a psychological underlying, always with concomitant atrophy of the cerebral cortex. It is typical almost total cessation of the work of the psyche. Very often, in addition, accompanied by exhaustion of the body. Many believe that marasmus is a household name of senile dementia, but, in fact, this concept is much more extensive and the reasons for it are much more diverse.
With marasmus always changes, weakening, brain activity. This implicitly affects all of his work and greatly changes the person. The most dangerous thing in marasmus is the influence on the whole organism. Marasmus signals that the cells are not renewed, and instead of self-healing, the process of withering away and replacing active cells with connective tissue, fibrosis or calcification is in progress. This does not pass without a trace, affecting and affecting all internal organs. Such organismic processes do not pass painlessly, undoubtedly, leading the organism to accelerated unavoidable aging.
Marasmus is more typical for women, given the statistically high life expectancy. Marasmus in men occurs less often, but its occurrence leads to sad consequences, making a man full of junk.
In the manifestations of marasmus, age matters, yet more often this pathology manifests itself in the elderly in 60 years. But you can not relax, because hard thinking activity in young age protects against such pathologies.
There is no less common subspecies of marasmus, which occurs with pathological nutrition - alimentary marasmus. This pathology is always associated with a lack of protein, since protein is the main building material in the body of all living things. At the same time, the work of the whole organism is disrupted, since then it is very difficult to restore the correct diet, even if there is a possibility. The danger of this kind is that the defeat occurs in persons of young age and even children, since for them protein products are the most important. In our world, there are often unfair living conditions in third world countries, so it is important to distinguish between protein and energy deficiency. After all, omissions in development are then almost impossible to restore, even providing the right food.
All pathologies accompanied by marasmus basically have a similar cipher in the psychiatric ICD 10, namely from 00 00 to 04, inclusive. Since, regardless of the reasons, the symptomatology is similar, it is important simply to timely identify such a problem.
Causes of Marasmus
The source of marasmus is always some kind of process and, basically, of an organic nature. Marasmus is not one of those pathologies that arise from nothing, there is always a root cause for it. Even if the visual person is fully healthy, then with a massive examination, the reasons are undoubtedly found. Common in our time is a microorganism, that is, a pathology that can be seen only on thin MRT sections. Such persons often have an appearance or exacerbation of already existing somatic pathology, all this can be a background on which the future develops or marasmus progresses. Congenital pathology with a similar symptom is called mental retardation, but the acquired problems of this nature will be called marasmus. At marasmus the primary link of pathogenesis will be atrophy, but the reason for its occurrence should be sought, there may be many.
Marasmus has no direct hereditary correlation, but still close relatives of a person with marasmus are more likely to manifest such a problem in the future, but this is only if the causes are not trauma and infection.
If the etiology is senile, then all the problems occur against the background of age-related changes, which have a very negative effect on the processes of vital activity, this is possible with a pathological violation of physiological aging. A lot of somatics, which initially would not seem to affect the brain in the future, can also damage the brain vessels during progression. All these modern diseases of the 21st century, atherosclerosis, which practically every person has with age, like hypertension. With stroke and postinsult status, such problems can also be observed, but against the background of gross neurological disorders this problem may fade. All rheumatological problems, especially vasculitis due to the effect on the vessels, are also capable of negative consequences. Cancer problems of any localization, as well as leukemia, fully manifest their negative effects, due to intoxication effects and metastasis.
Immune pathology in our time is very common, in fact, almost any pathology, one way or another, has a link with immunity. Thus, improperly functioning immunity is also capable of becoming a trigger of marasmus.
Prion pathology is also widely spread. These creatures can not even be called alive until they hit the brain, but their effect is very unfavorable throughout the central system. Many infections, especially AIDS, can lead to such consequences. In marasmus nutrition is important, because this is one of the most important factors.
The complete marasmus of and the collapse of a person is usually formed in severe organic neurological pathologies, for example, in Pick's disease, Alzheimer's disease.
Stages of marasmus, being formed gradually, can be associated with the use of psychotropic drugs, and this is not only drugs, but alcohol, even individual med.preparaty. It is very important to identify and timely treat such problems, especially trauma, because depending on localization they can do a lot of trouble.
Symptoms and signs of marasmus
Marasmus is more typical for people after the fiftieth anniversary, but all this is very individual. A more favorable prognosis for marasmus that began after the sixtieth birthday. Alas, all these criteria are purely individual, very personal.
This pathology has its own classic course and rarely goes beyond these limits. The stages of marasmus are quite obvious and do not give separate clinical or diagnostic advantages, but simply allow to observe the progression of marasmus.
Stages of marasmus are divided into three main stages, successively replacing each other.
The first thing that happens to a person, she has a character. All negative features are exacerbated, the person is psychopathic. If possible, ask relatives, they will say, for example, yes, he was always not very generous, but now it's just unbearable. Old senility in men often leads them to excessive stinginess, dislike and constant discontent, at the hour when women become demonstrative, intrusive and embittered. The nature is exacerbated considerably, but as it happens slowly, the surrounding can not notice this for a long time, and when noticed, this is often a long-lasting disease, which is much more difficult to correct.
Often there is pathological accumulation, this pathological desire to collect and store everything found, in a few years they are able to simply transform their abode into a real rubbish bin. The desire to care for themselves and be cleanliness completely disappears, they are very sloppy and disgusting. But it is very difficult to convince them to take care of themselves. Very strongly manifested egocentrism in this pathology, thinking changes, becoming rigid and unidirectional. Family links with the aggravation of symptoms decrease, which provokes alienation from the society.
Developed mental abilities and outstanding personal characteristics are still subject to marasmus, but they have this process slowed down due to the large number of connections and neurons. They simply have more memories and knowledge, which require a longer time to erase.
Marasmus in men is often accompanied by hypersexuality and increased appetite. The next manifestations of the disease after the change of personality will be changes in the cognitive sphere. If these functions are disrupted, disorientation appears, the memory progressively worsens, and all types of memory, memories in the reverse order disappear from the head. Because of the increased lability, they can be unpredictable, and periodically even dangerous. Patients may be disturbed by psychoproduction, which is difficult to stop due to accompanying ailments.
Complete insanity always adds increased complacency, they already do not care about anything, presumably it is the defensive reaction of the brain to the absolute collapse of personality. At this stage, cachexia is already progressing, people are very thin and painful. From bed, they no longer rise and go to the diaper for needs. Full senility always gives a short and unfavorable forecast, which is almost irretrievable.
Treatment of Marasmus
The first necessary assignment is the right favorable regimen. Such a regime is necessary for normal vital activity at any stage of marasmus. If marasmus was detected at an early stage by a working person, then it is necessary to provide him with a full rest and relaxation.
Nutrition requires a full and fairly balanced, given the propensity of the elderly to disintegrate muscles. It is very important to influence glial tissues, which act as food for neurons. They contain fat, so polyunsaturated fatty acids are very important. It is better to apply the Mediterranean diet. When marasmus is very important fish, fresh fruit, especially apples. Greens contain a lot of tocopherol, so its use is welcomed. Fresh vegetables contain the necessary minerals. Activation is very important, because the physical movement allows you to fully live.
In case of marasmus, the treatment with medicines varies greatly and depends on the pathology, which became the root cause. If the concomitant somatics is treated, then we apply various effective means. Atherosclerotic problems Atorvostatin 20 mg, Rosovustatin, Fibrates. They extend the common path of life. If necessary, to empty the vessel from the plaques, a stand or shunting is used. In hypertensive problems, it is important to properly reduce and subsequently maintain such pressure: Berlipril, Vasar, Captopril, Lozap, Valsartan, calcium channel blockers, beta blockers, Furosemide, Torasemide, Manit, Lactulose. With cardiac problems, prophylactic therapy with the use of: Magnikora, Kordaron, Lozap, and Cardisave is important.
Marasmus in men and women with Alzheimer's is treated with Amiridin, Tacrine, Excelone, Donepycil. Also effective hormonal estrogen replacement and NSAIDs, for example, Ibupen, Imet, Diclofenac, Nurofen, Seleginin, Cognitiv, Yumeks.
Psychiatric groups and even hospitalization may be used for indications, but neuroleptics are used, but children's dosages, because the weakened metabolism of such persons can not cope with the side effects of these drugs: Haloperidol, Halopril, Clopixol, Azaleptol, Truksal, Triftazine, Chlorprotixen. When depressive states are included, Depakin chrono, Valprokom, Lamotrigine and other normotimics are added. Also, antidepressants are connected: Amitriptyline, Triptysol, Elavil, Fluorazycin, Pyrazidol, Azafen, Oxylidine, Melipramine, Nuredal, Nialamid.
Practically pathogenetic treatment is considered nootropics that can contribute to brain function: Gamalon up to 960 mg, Acephan up to 970 mg, Piriditol( course intake), Piracetam.
Cognitive therapy with simple repetitions and exercises helps preserve the borderline intelligence, significantly slowing the progression of marasmus.
With complete marasmus with symptoms of cachexia, parenteral nutrition is very important, then a drip of vitamins, a solution of Trisol, Disol, Rhesorbilakt is performed. But it is important not to overfill BCC, so as not to cause complications.
Forecast and sequelae of insanity
The consequences of marasmus vary greatly due to the underlying disease, home improvement, the socialization of the person with insanity and the relationship of the family. But one fact remains unshakable, the disease never regresses, those symptoms that already can not be reversed, so early diagnosis is very important. If the person or his relatives applied at early stages, the progress of the disease can be effectively restored and the person will live a full life for another ten years. But the main negative consequences are the possibility of harming others and the inability to look after themselves, and helpless people often become useless to nobody.
Socialization of young patients should be conducted with psychologists and psychotherapists, using art therapy, heterosugestion and cognitive-behavioral therapy. It is important not to admit the disease to complete senility, since this stage entails profound changes, not only mental, but also organismic.
On the unfavorable prognosis they say: the patient's subjective condition, the impossibility of performing elementary actions to take care of himself. Therefore, timely nutrition and care to prevent weight loss and infections significantly prevent or improve the condition of patients.
It is very important to have a proper conversation with relatives, they should be aware that they are responsible for this person. After all, proper care will allow such people to live a very long and not so terrible life.
Everyone should understand that old age comes at all and no one knows what awaits him. We need to respect the old people with respect, so that the children respectfully treat them later. It is very important to put this in the minds of new generations and instill in them the care for people with such diseases.