What vaccinations need to be done by an adult
May 25, 2018
In childhood and adolescence, all are administered vaccines against a number of infections.Quite widely believed is that immunity to them persists for life.This is only partly true: the acquired( so-called postvaccinal) immunity against certain diseases worsens over time, and the inoculation must be repeated, that is, the revaccination should be carried out.
It is known that some infectious diseases( for example, chickenpox) are borne by children relatively easily, but in adults they not only flow heavier, but they can cause serious complications. During the routine medical examination, which is recommended for everyone without exception, the doctors must remind you of the need for revaccination.It is highly desirable to visit a specialist immunologist to compile an individual vaccination calendar. To establish whether a booster is needed in an adult age, a laboratory test is performed to analyze the patient's blood for antibodies to one or another causative agent.
Important: after bites by animals, it is necessary to introduce anti-rabies serum, ie, to get vaccinated against rabies.
Is vaccination an adult dangerous?
As a rule, vaccination in adulthood proceeds without any complications of .
Some people need to be careful about allergy sufferers.Vaccination in some cases can trigger a hypersensitivity reaction, so the drug should only be administered under the supervision of the treating doctor.You should not go through immunization if an acute illness( including an ordinary cold) develops or if any chronic pathology worsens( in this case you need to wait for a stable remission).
Major contraindications for vaccination:
- Decompensated heart failure;
- diabetes mellitus;
- reception of preparations-immunosuppressors;
- chemo- or radiotherapy;
- preparation period for organ and tissue transplant surgery.
After the introduction of the vaccine, it is recommended that all people take antihistamines to prevent the allergy .If the temperature rises, you do not need to worry - this reaction is typical for so many people.In such cases, conventional antipyretics( antipyretics) are shown - Acetylsalicylic acid, Paracetamol, Ibuprofen, etc. It is absolutely normal if after the first vaccination or revaccination there is a slight weakness, lethargy and drowsiness.
There is usually a small break between the introduction of vaccines against various infections, but even if a whole series of vaccinations is required, there is no danger.Some vaccines immediately go in a complex, for example, in the composition of an associated drug against pertussis, diphtheria and tetanus.Often in parallel, and carried out vaccination against poliomyelitis.
Important! If, for some reason, a patient has never been vaccinated before, it is mandatory for him to undergo a complete examination, pass a series of tests and get a consultation from a neurologist.
What vaccinations should adults do?
Even people who were vaccinated as a child may be prone to certain infections if they did not undergo a revaccination in time.
Infectious diseases against which adults should be vaccinated:
- chicken pox( chicken pox);
- epidemic parotitis( mumps);
- Hepatitis B
- tick-borne encephalitis;
- pneumococcal infection;
- is a meningococcal infection.
Diphtheria and tetanus: the timing of the vaccination of adults
According to the National Vaccination Schedule, the vaccine against these diseases - DTP( additionally protects against pertussis) or ADS-m - is administered several times in childhood and adolescence.To maintain the necessary intensity of post-vaccination immunity, repeated booster revaccinations are necessary every 10 years.Preparations are mixtures of purified diphtheria and tetanus toxoids.
For a booster, a single injection of is sufficient.If vaccination in childhood was not put, then to form an immune defense requires the consistent introduction of three doses - the first two with a monthly interval, and the third - a year later.
Important: after injury to the skin, if there is a chance of contamination of the wound, it is advisable to additionally get a tetanus vaccination.
Repeated administration of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids is particularly important for people at risk of their work patterns.
These include, in particular:
- all medical personnel;
- employees of preschool and general educational institutions;
- employees of SES;
- agricultural workers;
- persons working with soil during construction;
- people engaged in logging;
- employees of the service of pest control and deratization.
Vaccination of adults against rubella, measles and mumps
These 3 diseases are dangerous potential complications.According to the schedule, vaccinations are made from them three times - at the age of 1 year, at 6 and 16-17 years.To maintain stable immunity, revaccination at 22-29 years is shown, and then every 10 years.If a person has not previously been vaccinated, then with a monthly time interval 2 doses of a three-component vaccine containing weakened viruses are administered.
Important: , some immunologists state that stable immunity against mumps and measles persists for 20 to 30 years, so during the revaccination it is possible to confine oneself to the introduction of the rubella vaccine.But, since, this issue is currently controversial, it is better not to take risks.
Vaccination against this disease is carried out at will, and only to those who have not had it in childhood.The intensity of immunity persists over three decades, so there is no need for revaccination.
Vaccination from chickenpox is especially important for women planning to become mothers in the near future;It is recommended to do it at least 3 months before the alleged conception of .Infection can provoke spontaneous abortion or become the cause of developmental anomalies in a future child.
Note: Before administering a medication containing an attenuated varicella-zoster virus, it is important to make sure that the patient is no longer pregnant.
According to the recommendations of the World Health Organization, if there was contact with an infected person, then to prevent the development of the disease, it is advisable for an adult to be vaccinated against chicken pox for three days.
Vaccination of adults against hepatitis B
Immunity against this dangerous liver disease persists for 7-8 years after vaccination.Revaccination is recommended to be held regularly for people from 20 to 55 years of age - it is in this age group that the incidence is especially high.
Categories of persons who need to be vaccinated against hepatitis B:
- staff of medical institutions;
- patients who are being prepared for surgery and / or blood transfusion.
Influenza vaccines for adults
The need for vaccines against influenza is a controversial issue, and it causes a lot of controversy among specialists.The culprit of epidemics every year are different types and strains of viruses, so the effectiveness of vaccines can be very questionable.The drug for immunization does not make sense to introduce, when the seasonal incidence is already at its peak - most likely, specific immunity simply does not have time to form.
Vaccines are contraindicated in pregnant women, but women planning to conceive should be vaccinated with .Influenza, especially in the first trimester, adversely affects the development of the fetus and is even capable of provoking a spontaneous termination of pregnancy.
Vaccines against influenza should be received by medical personnel, persons from 50 years and older, adult patients suffering from respiratory diseases, diabetics and people working in large groups.
Pneumococcal and meningococcal infection
Vaccination against these adult infections is carried out as desired.It is recommended for elderly people, employees of general education institutions, health workers, as well as people suffering from chronic diseases of the liver, kidneys and respiratory system.The vaccine is administered once;Revaccination is indicated for blood diseases and after removal of the spleen.
It is advisable to inject a vaccine against this disease to all people living or working in areas where the risk of infection is particularly high.The vaccination should be done in the early spring, so that the moment of a probable bite of the tick has formed immunity.According to the optimal scheme, adults are advised to enter three doses of the vaccine - the first two with a monthly interval, and the third - after a year.High tension of immune defense persists for 3 years, but for those who regularly visit fields and forests, it is necessary to introduce revaccination annually.
Vaccination of adults against papillomatosis
The papilloma virus is especially dangerous for women, since papillomas in some cases have an ability to malign.As a result of this process, cervical cancer develops.All the representatives of the fair sex should be vaccinated at the age of 10 to 25 years.
Note: is one of the other pathologies of infectious genesis that are recommended for vaccinations for adults, including hepatitis A, shingles, tuberculosis and poliomyelitis.
The effectiveness of vaccinations is a proven fact, but their effectiveness, unfortunately, is not absolute.
Elena Sovinskaya, medical reviewer