Bleeding gums: causes and treatment
With gingival hemorrhage, perhaps, everyone has encountered in his life.There are many reasons for this: from gum disease to systemic diseases.Find out the cause yourself is not so easy, it will require an examination at the dentist, and sometimes a consultation of the therapist.But identifying the cause of bleeding will help to select an effective treatment.Table of contents:
Causes of bleeding gums
If the gum bleeds not constantly, but only occasionally - this may be a result of mechanical damage to the gums with a toothbrush, thread and even solid food.In this case active treatment is not required, it is enough to choose a brush with a soft bristle and use the thread carefully.
In those cases where the bleeding persists for a long period of time and is accompanied by an increase in the sensitivity of the gums, the appearance of pain - suggest gum disease.According to various data, 64 to 98% of people suffer from gum disease.
Much less often bleeding gums is a consequence of systemic diseases of the body: diseases of the endocrine system, blood, hypovitaminosis, etc.In this case, the patient will need treatment not only the oral cavity, but also the underlying disease.
Perhaps the main cause of bleeding gums, is the failure to comply with the full hygiene of the oral cavity.Insufficient cleaning of the tooth surface, an abundance of carbohydrates in the diet leads to the formation of a plaque on the teeth.The plaque is initially soft, then gradually calcified and transformed into tartar, which grows into the gingival pocket, thereby disrupting the integrity of the gum, causing inflammation and bleeding in it.
The gums may suffer from incorrect installation of orthodontic braces and dentures.Adaptations that are closely adjacent to the mucous gum cause its friction and damage.Another extreme is the loose abutment of the prosthesis to the gum.In this case, food remains in the gap formed, dental stones are formed, which also breaks the integrity of the gingival mucosa.
Insufficient oral hygiene, rapid activity of microorganisms lead to the development of inflammatory diseases of the gums: gingivitis and periodontitis.Against the background of inflammation, the permeability of the vessels increases, they become brittle, which causes bleeding.
Gingivitis is an inflammatory disease of the gum, in which the dentogingival joints are not involved in the pathological process and remain unchanged.Inflammation of the gum is localized( the gum is inflamed around one or two teeth) and the gum of the entire dentition is inflamed.The intensity of the inflammatory process depends on the degree of gum disease.Thus, with gingivitis of mild degree, only the interdental gingival papilla are affected, and at an average degree of severity - the inflammation spreads even to the marginal gingival zone.Gingivitis is severe in all parts of the gum( alveolar and marginal).
The following symptoms are indicative of gingivitis:
- Gum bleeding;
- Edema of the marginal part of the gingiva;
- Presence of plaque and tartar;
- Redness or cyanosis of the marginal gingiva;
- Hypersensitivity to the gums;Unpleasant smell from the mouth.
In the case of ulcerative necrotic gingivitis, in addition to local symptoms, there are signs of a disturbance in overall well-being.The patient notes weakness, elevated body temperature.
Gingivitis may persist for a long time, the symptoms may subside and resume.The danger of gingivitis is that its progression leads to the involvement of the bone tissue around the tooth in the inflammatory process and the development of a more formidable condition - periodontitis.
Parodontitis is an inflammatory disease involving periodontal disease and destruction of bone tissue.The disease proceeds chronically, then abating, then escalating .Symptoms of periodontitis are :
- Bleeding gums;
- Puffiness, redness( cyanosis) of the gums;
- Unpleasant odor from the mouth;
- Pathological mobility of the teeth due to destruction of the tooth-gingival attachment;
- Gums sore when pressed;
- Formation of periodontal pockets with a purulent discharge.
Periodontal pockets are a pathognomonic sign of periodontitis.Depth of pockets varies depending on the severity of periodontitis, it can be determined using a probe.
Note: parodontosis is a systemic lesion of the periodontal tissue( periodontal), which is not accompanied by gingival hemorrhage.Parodontosis is not an inflammatory disease, but develops as a result of dystrophic changes in periodontal disease.Because of the similarity of the names "periodontitis" and "periodontitis", these two diseases are often confused and therefore mistakenly attribute periodontitis symptoms to periodontitis.
Non-stethodic causes of bleeding
Gum bleeding can be caused by systemic diseases.The elementary reason is the lack of vitamin C( scurvy).With a lack of ascorbic acid, vascular permeability increases, which causes not only bleeding gums, but also hemorrhagic rash on the skin.Lack of vitamin K can also be a cause of bleeding, as it is a factor involved in blood clotting.Even banal ARVI can lead to bleeding gums, because the infection breaks the permeability of blood vessels.
Gum bleeding is a companion of endocrine diseases.So, with diabetes mellitus develops chronic periodontitis with pathological mobility of teeth and the expiration of pus from the periodontal pockets.The disease is also accompanied by dry mouth, hypo-salivation, candidiasis of the oral cavity.There is a direct relationship between the severity of inflammatory changes in the mucous membrane of the mouth and the severity of diabetes mellitus.Gum bleeding is also observed with thyrotoxicosis, Izenko-Cushing's disease.
The mucous membrane is sensitive to changes in the hormonal background.Dentists even single out a separate concept of "hormonal stomatitis".Thus, in the adolescent period, catarrhal inflammation of the gums with bleeding may develop.Against the background of hormonal changes during pregnancy, women often face gingivitis, which occurs two months after childbirth, and sometimes after lactation.Gums swollen, red, bleed when brushing teeth and taking hard food.Gingivitis can accompany a woman and during menopause.
Bleeding gums are a symptom of such formidable and rare enough diseases as leukemia and hemophilia.Leukemia( blood cancer) is accompanied by severe weakness, headaches, nosebleeds.Hemophilia is a disease in which blood clotting is impaired.This is a congenital disease, the diagnosis of which is established as early as childhood.Symptoms of hemophilia are prolonged bleeding from the gums and not only.It is worth remembering that the use of anti-coagulant drugs( heparin, warfarin) can also lead to bleeding gums.
Treatment of bleeding gums
The treatment regimen for bleeding gums depends on the cause that led to this condition.Treatment of gingivitis and periodontitis is handled by a dentist, systemic diseases - a therapist. Principles of treatment of bleeding gums:
- Cleaning teeth from plaque and stones with ultrasonic cleaning.
- Carry out anti-inflammatory therapy in the form of mouth rinses with antiseptic solutions( eg, Chlorhexidine) or applications( for example, holil-gel).
- Antibiotic therapy - as a rule, prescribe broad-spectrum antibiotics.The drugs can be administered either orally in the form of tablets, or for external treatment in the form of applications and injections into the gum.
- Assignment of keratolytic agents( Solcoseryl, Vitamins A and E) promotes rapid healing of the gums.
- Vitaminotherapy( the introduction of vitamins C, group B) helps strengthen the vascular wall, improve the microcirculation periodontal.
- Physiotherapeutic procedures( electrophoresis with calcium, fluoride, vitamins, ozone therapy, laser therapy).A good result in the treatment of inflamed gums can be achieved with the help of finger massage or hydromassage.Such manipulation contributes to the acceleration of metabolic processes in the tissues of periodontal disease, to reduction of swelling and soreness.
- Complete hygiene of the oral cavity - use of a toothbrush with soft bristles, use of flosses and threads, toothpastes from bleeding, mouth rinsing after eating.
- Surgical treatment is performed with periodontitis in case of inefficiency of drug treatment.The most common manipulation is curettage - scraping the contents of the periodontal pocket, after which restore the integrity of the gum.
Treatment of bleeding gums folk remedies
To cure inflammatory diseases of the gums and the more so systemic diseases folk remedies are impossible.But their use in complex treatment helps to quickly eliminate inflammation and bleeding.
Traditionally, a decoction of chamomile was used to reduce inflammation.Prepare it quite simply: you need to fill a teaspoon of chamomile flowers with a glass of boiling water.After an hour, drain the decoction and rinse out the mouth.This procedure can be repeated three to four times a day.
Oak bark infusion has not only anti-inflammatory, but healing effects.For its preparation it is necessary to pour into the dishes two full tablespoons of well-crushed oak bark and pour a glass of boiling water.The dishes should be covered and kept for half an hour.The resulting broth strain and rinse your mouth three times a day.
Grigorova Valeria, medical reviewer